Factors determining Change - Part 1 - Lite version

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Social Reality: Violence, Power, and Change
Factors determining Change -Part 1 - Lite version


"Life is change" - charlie777pt

Introduction


In our lives, there are events and situations that influence the equilibrium and identity like the changes of our bodies, situations, places, attitudes, opinions, behavior, and habits.

1 - Change by Resistance and Resistance to Change


Change has the two opposite sides of a coin, one with the individual and collective Resistance against it, and in the other with Resistance as the way to change unsustainable situations in society.
Change is always between the equilibration of two forms of Resistance for or against it.

Participation has been stolen from us to benefit financially or politically a small class of capital owners and politicians that retain and rule about the wealth and decision power in postmodern societies.
Social change challenges the power distribution and relations, by participation and engagement, to facilitate change processes for social, political and economic justice.
The factors involved in change can be personal , situational, cultural, social, economical or technological.

change-factors-en.jpg

2- Personal factors


Personal factors are part of the process of change like modifying habits or values in day-to-day life in aspects like success or feeling control on reality.

2.1 - Success


Strodtbeck and Mann in 1956 defined success as the individual capacities to climb the ladder of social mobility.
The need for success was studied by Mclelland in 1961-65 by a test that could determine the self-motivation to be successful, and the environmental influences.
They connected success with socialization related to the parent's trust or their strengthen needs for success that are reflected in the child tendencies for achievement.

They also found a correlation with the parents social status and the degree of success and another factor he called "extra determination" connecting economic wealth with social mobility, and the tendency to ascend socially and have a better feeling of relationships with other people.
Later experiments proved that the closed focus on personal characteristics didn't take into account situational factors of change.

2.2 - Control


The feeling of control in an adaptation to change is the power we sense that we can handle events in reality, or become impotent for our lack of getting what we want.
Control and impotence can come from the inside(individual) or from the outside (contextual) and produce a depressive state(by impotence) not only by lack of control but as well if the change is not desired.

Control was associated with a strong feeling of identity that diminishes the influence of stressing events in consciousness, giving a sense of domination of reality.
The attribution of responsibilities augments our sociability and physical health, making the individual feels self-attributed control on real events.

3- Situations


This set of factors related to the situation show for example how aging changes our ways to react to the surrounding events.
For example, old people that can be more affected by natural catastrophes, are the ones that take less into account the advice of the official authorities.

Aging changes the way we react to situational factors by the diminished physical mobility, slower reaction times, and increasing sensorial and perceptual disturbances, with disorientation.
Getting old is being more exposed to death in the family and friends, unemployment, loneliness, and on the other side society has stereotypes of age related to incapacities and unwillingness to change or lack of knowledge.

4- Culture


Change is related to the various components of culture that do not follow a linear or regular change.
Mead in 1953 said that changing food supply in some societies from local and natural to imported goods didn't change the regular habits, except that in the initial food was shared so they didn't check the stock, and when they changed they had to verify the stocks because this new system needed vigilance for quantities.

When a society changes from fascist to democratic there is no global change of mentalities at the structural and the cultural level, but two types of contradicting ideologies for or against the preconized change.

5- Tech and Economy


In industrial societies, technology development and economic growth are less studied as factors that influence change, but have a profound impact on life, communication with others and contextual implications.
Doob in 1975 defined 7 factors that happen the process of change:
  • How a person is controlled by the way he/she is fixated on the influences of his/her Past, Present or Future.
  • The role of the state in providing satisfaction for people's needs.
  • The personal sense of control over life and events.
  • Patriotism
  • Influence of scientific thought in rational thinking
  • The nature of social attitudes
  • The refusal of ancient values and beliefs
This makes difficult any clear analysis of its complexity and impossible compartmentation.

6 - Society


We have seen that there are inside and outside factors influencing change.
The endogenous factors have to do with the way society values, legitimate or disapprove social conducts.
Values influence change in two ways, with stabilization and absorption in the social order, or with refusal, that can stop or delay it.
The exogenous factors are contingencies forcing groups and organizations to find new ways to solve them (social intelligence).

So today the accelerated growth of populations, the shrinking of economic living standards, and world hunger are destabilizing the World and showing the urgent need to equilibrate these elements (that the states are not solving).
These elements are not easily isolable, and change has both internal and external influences, resulting in the impossibility to define the fundamental causes of the transformations, a difficult phenomenon to analyze and compartmentalized with a multitude of events influencing the evolution of human adaptation, conditioned by the various personal, situational, and socio-economic-cultural factors.

The next post will be more abstract and complex, being more turned on for scholars or students of all sorts.

Last posts in this series on Social Reality: Violence, Power and Change
Introduction:

Social Reality: Violence, Power and Change

A - Violence:

An Introduction to Violence
The Concepts of Violence, Aggression, and Aggressiveness
The Theories on Violence
The influencers of Violence -Part One - Culture and Social Context
The influencers of Violence -Part Two - Social , Cognitive and Environmental Factors
The ascend of Today's Violence

B -Power:

What is Power? - Introduction
The Nature of Power The Dynamics of Power: The Effects and Consequences of Power

C - Change:

Change and Culture
The Theories and Concepts of Change
Factors determining Change - Part 1 - Lite version - this post

Articles from the next series of posts about Social Reality, Violence, Power and Change:
C - Change:(cont.)

Factors determining Change - Part 2 - Complex version
The Ways of Change
A Social Change

References consulted:

Les concepts fondamentaux de la psychologie sociale - Gustave-Nicolas Fischer
La psychologie sociale - Gustave-Nicolas Fischer
The social-violence dynamics, Power, change - Gustave-Nicolas Fischer, Planeta / ISPA, 1980
Gustave-Nicolas Fischer is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Psychology Laboratory at the University of Metz.
French, J. R. P., and Raven, B.H. (1959). The bases of social Power.
Raven, B. H. and Rubin, J. Z. (1976). Social psychology: People in groups
Castel, R. The metamorphoses of the social question. Voices, 1998.
Moscovici, S. (1976). Social influence and social change. London: Academic Press
Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison
Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes.
French, J. R. P., Morrison, H. W., and Levinger, G. (1960). Coercive Power and forces affecting conformity
Dahl, R.A. (1957), The Concept of Power.
Giddens, Anthony, Capitalism and Modern Social Theory: An Analysis of the Writings of Marx, Durkheim and Max Weber, 1971.
Grabb, Edward G., Theories of Social Inequality: Classical and Contemporary Perspectives,1990.
Weber, Max, Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, 1968.
Lewin, K. (1948) ‘Action Research and Minority Problems’, in G.W. Lewin (ed.), Researching Social Conflicts , New York: Harper and Row
Parsons, T. (1966). Societies: Evolutionary and comparative perspectives.
Levy, A. (1986) Second-order planned change: Definition and conceptualization, Organisational Dynamics, Vol, 15, Issue 1, pp. 5, 19-17, 23
Watzlawick, P., Weakland, J.H., Fisch, R. (1974) Change: Principles of Problem Formation and Problem Resolution. New York, Norton.

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yous said right dear,fscist to democratic there is no global change at the structural and the cultural level.

Yes, I have seen this happening in 1974-75 in Portugal, where there was a change of 50 years of fascism to a total freedom and power of the people that didn't last long because there was the expected split of the ones resisting the change and the others resisting for the expected initial liberation of the Revolution.
Even in Africa in may counties I've seen the initial "freedom for all" joy of the people, but then power becomes solid, corrupt and starts abusing people with total lack of democracy and absence of human rights.
Power in Africa is much more visible in every corner of society than in our "civilized societies" where it seems to be behind an invisible veil.

yes we see that, no fascist government not continued under pressure of their people. people is the highest power of the world.

it is very intresting post ..and valuable ..

Sir really intresting post ..Resteem This Post

It can be very sensitive to keep a nation's genius alive. Every person has different characteristics in it, which are different from everyone. But we all have to find that trait. Then we will achieve success. And to keep this success in mind, first of all must be happy. Keeping the dung away should always be happy, then the success will come. And you have chosen that work tie Sir. I am hopeful that you will achieve success and success very quickly. The Lord is always near the true man.....Really it is great post sir..