What really is ‘New Fire’ Fuel?

in steemstem •  3 months ago

By ignoring the often touted notion that Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) is impossible and taking the view that it is both a natural and ubiquitous process, let’s let evidence guide us.


Video 1: Overview

This presentation makes extensive used of the net positive stable nuclear reaction data established by Dr. Alexander Parkhomov and made into searchable tables by Philip Power and Denis Lamotte.

Earth’s crust atomic abundance

Ever wondered why elements have the abundance they do in the earths crust?
Screen Shot 2018-05-16 at 09.27.40.png

Figure 1: Abundance of atoms in the Earth’s crust SOURCE

George Ohsawa reactions

Perhaps George Ohsawa reactions can give us a clue?
0 Day - Singularity.011.jpeg

Figure 2: George Ohsawa reaction tree

ReactionMeV
C + N > Al17.3006 to 23.3442
N + O > P19.8036 to 26.6528
C + O > Si16.7557 to 26.759
C + C > Mg13.9305 to 22.4648
Al + Al > Fe21.8426
Al + N > Ca21.4383
Al + O > Sc*23.0787
N + N > Si24.6427 to 27.5322
O + O > S16.5396 to 28.3202
Si + O > Ti14.944 to 23.2622
Si + N > Sc*16.7203
Mg + N > K19.4347 to 23.6301
Mg + O > Ca16.181 to 24.5411
Ti + Si > Cu15.9397 to 20.0402
Ti + O > Zn12.7214 to 21.0965

Table 1: George Ohsawa reaction energy ranges

So the reactions observed in NOVA testing have net energy releases according to Dr. Alexander Parkhomov’s data of between 12.7214 and 28.3202 MeV.

*Not observed by Dr. George Egely, perhaps because it has quite high atomic volume and there are energetically favourable reactions of Sc with O > Cu, with N > Ni, with H or D > Ti. Also if first F is produced by combining H/D with O then this fusing with Sc produces Zn.

Atomic-Volume.png

Figure 3: Old Soviet table, uncertain what state of matter the density calculations are based on SOURCE annotated with observed transmuted elements compiled by George Miley with additional elements observed to date by MFMP

In addition, there are some net positive nucleon exchange reactions between George Ohsawa reaction products, just looking at the 2º ones for example:

ReactionMeV
Al + Si > H/D + Fe4.0082 - 11.68
Si + P > H/D + Ni0.7545 - 8.3052
Al + P > the elements He, Fe, Si, C, Ti, Mg, S, O, Ne and Ar0.122 - 12.1784

Table 2: Reactions between George Ohsawa reaction products Al, P and Si

With the most energetic of the Al + P reactions producing 4He and 54Fe, both elements with low distortion of the physical vacuum according to Stoyan Sarg.

Explaining ECCO fuel

Fuel processing

The processing of fuel is discussed here.
Copenhagen.001.jpeg

Figure 4: ECCO reactor fuel maker SOURCE

Analysis of part processed fuel showed large quantities of Pb, Zr and Nb, not meant to be in starting materials

Processed ECCO fuel had a lot of Pb, Zr, Nb in it as well as indications of Sn in addition to the H2O, Ti, C, Ni that were used. It was said by the inventor, Suhas Ralkar, that Tungsten (W) was added as a milling agent, however only some samples showed potential traces of W.
Copenhagen.003.jpeg

Figure 5: ECCO Fuel analysis

Copenhagen.004.jpeg
Figure 6: ECCO Fuel analysis SOURCE

ECCO Part Processed FUEL.png
Figure 7: SEM/EDS analysis of ECCO ultrasonically 'part processed' fuel. SOURCE

Strange radiation was observed emanating from ECCO fuel by various methods

ECCO-SR.jpg

Figure 8: Methods by which evidence of strange radiation was observed in relation to ECCO fuel - Photographic plate - Cosmic Ray Finder with Logitech 910C at angle to fuel and perpendicular-to-fuel - Olympus Laser Microscopy of non-contact PET - Macro photography of in-contact PET - Canon 7D Macro and NURUGO + Samung S7 microscopic video of part processed ECCO fuel

Other researchers that observed similar large scale synthesis of Pb

LeClaire / Nanospire, USA

Possibly similar to the ECCO fuel processor in that in both cases there was cavitation in water - Initial element combination were not the same however. LeClaire observed all elements including radioactive ones and in this authors opinion, this was because the active agent was driven very hard (leading to high mass isotopes) and destroyed, resulting in production of radioactive isotopes.
Pb.001.jpeg

Figure 9: LeClaire / Nanospire showing high levels of Lead production and 'strange radiation' evidence

Mark LeClaire said in an interview on smart scarecrow show that it was easier to make
lead than to make gold.

S. V. Adamenko / Proton 21 Lab, Ukraine

This was an intense electrical discharge into a rounded end shaped fine anode of a pure metal.
Pb.002.jpeg

Figure 10: S. V. Adamenko showing high levels of Lead production and 'new kinds of radiation' at Proton 21 Labs

aflb331m632.jpg

Figure 11: 'New kinds of radiation' tracks observed by S.W. Adamenko

Adamenko used a "metal-dielectric-semiconductor" detector in the overall setup they developed as shown below.
Screen Shot 2018-05-23 at 21.54.50.png
Figure 12: Basic overview of Adamenko/Vysotskii experiment that observed ’new kinds of radiation’

The detector so designed is interesting, because it has the very good conductor Aluminium on the surface (4th best), often shown to be the most easily effected by John Hutchison. With it’s Metal / Dielectric / semiconductor structure, it also has impedance changes, which, according to shoulders observations, exotic vacuum objects (EVOs) do not like to pass through. Additionally the thin film of oil provides ready C and H.

The mystery of missing Tungsten (W)

When the MFMP first reported the elemental composition of part processed ECCO fuel ascertained by Masaryk University SEM operators to Suhas Ralkar, there was shock and disbelief. The high concentrations of Pb, Zr and Nb especially and traces of Sn made no sense, the whole purpose of the ultrasonic processor was to reduce the grain size of the source metals to around 5um. It was postulated that due to the high natural critical temperatures of Nb, Pb and Sn (in addition to the Ti that was in the inputs), the system was favouring 'highest temperature' elemental superconductors (though still very low!) A possible explanation for this was that the active agent may be atomising the elements, in which case, there is no lattice to support thermal vibrations and so the actual temperature may be in the low single digit Kelvins in the range these atoms super-conduct, this concept was presented at Asti on June 9 2017.

Suhas also claimed that Tungsten (W) was added to the raw materials to act as a milling agent, however we did not detect any W in the processed material above the SEMs certainty threshold (0.1 % in places and then only in some samples). At the time we honestly thought that it must have been omitted from the inputs of the sample we reviewed. As this blog was being written, Suhas wrote on a public forum

"You surely remember my telling you our Tungsten powder based ultrasonic milling during fuel preparation and then allowing part tungsten powder to remain in fuel."

  • Suhas Ralkar, ECW, 13 May 2018

So we have a situation where W, if it was there, has disappeared, Pb and Zr have appeared in abundance with traces of Sn. So, does Dr. Alexander Parkhomov's data help us explain these observations?

Making Lead

#ReactionMeVNotes
1O+O > S16.5396 to 28.32024 outcomes, most likely is with two O16 leading to S32
2S+W > Zr+Sn97.6718 to 107.153533 reactions, 15 with S32, all isotopes of Sn except 112, 114,115 synthesised which incidentally have lowest natural abundance
3Ar+Pb < Sn+Sn-119.3086 to -127.9612Ar off-gassing may prevent a reversible reaction. Sn isotopes not produced in #2 are not needed. Also, Sn117 not used, possible reason for the very small amount of Sn?
4Ca+Ca > Zr2.597 to 6.214There are two Ohsawa paths to Ca
5H/D+C > N7.3933 to 16.1596Part of CNO Cycle
6H/D+N > O12.1262 to 20.8925Part of CNO Cycle
7H+Zr > Nb5.9569 to 12.4187Production of Nb observed by both LeClaire and Adamenko where none present before

Table 3: Proposed reactions in ECCO fuel processor

If the ECCO fuel preparation reaction path is as above, the W would be converted to isotopes of Zr and Sn (reaction #2). All of the Sn isotopes that are produced are used to synthesise Pb and Ar except Sn117 (reaction #3), which may account for the very small residual amounts of Sn. The overall reaction might not be reversible as the Ar produced may leave the water/reaction or because it is noble / not conductive.

All isotopes of Zr are produced by reaction #2, however, Zr can also be produced by fusing two Ca atoms, with one source of calcium atoms coming from George Ohsawa reactions. Also there is 16O + 204Pb > 96Zr + 124Sn : 143.9568 MeV with the 2 x Sn exchange to Pb + Ar, leading to a iterative settling of the overall mixture, including a reduction in 204Pb and skew to higher mass isotopes of Pb, just as observed in nature.

The abundance of Zr produced could lead to the observed Nb, given the presence of H (reaction #7) in H2O. The small amount of Si observed in one sample area could be due to standard Ohsawa reaction between C and O.

The proposed reaction considers the energetically favourable nature of the individual steps with all but the Sn+Sn > Ar+Pb reaction being net positive. It is this authors hypothesis that a hard driven reaction

In both Bolivian and Cornish Tin Oxide bearing seams, it should be noted that Wolframite is also found.

Pb based nucleon exchange reaction

There are 19466 nucleon exchange reactions that have a net positive yield with isotopes of Pb

Interestingly, out of all 516790 net positive nucleon exchange, 1389 fusion and 818 fission reactions, the following, noted above, is the 4th most energetic.

16O + 204Pb > 96Zr + 124Sn : 143.9568 MeV

Moreover, the atomic volume chart indicates that production of both Zr and Sn is favourable in an implosive process and the Earth’s crust abundance lends billions of years of evidence that this reaction path is desirable since both elements have high abundance relative to those adjacent to them. Furthermore Pb is often found naturally with several impurities.

Lead is often found naturally as Gelena or Lead (II) Sulphide - PbS - and there are a number of exchange reactions that yield Sn from S and Pb, however, it must be noted that S is just 2 x O as per George Ohsawa, so as a multi-atom nucleon reorganisation, it would be better to split the S and do O + Pb reactions.

So a reactor with the molten PbO electrolyte yielding 75 reactions, 25 of which exceed D + D fusion yield, would be ideal with the active agent in it stimulated, or nucleated and controlled. Use of molten PbO and discharges with electron promoters is exactly what is in the Ukrainian Borys Vasylyevych Bolotov’s 2001 priority patent, as discussed in the previous blogpost on making gold.

The most energetic is the following

12C + 204Pb > 86Kr + 130Te : 145.0821 MeV

It is interesting to note that without Suhas Ralkar actually intending it to, the ECCO reactor has Pb in addition to C and O and we have established it has the active agent in it as it produces copious amounts of strange radiation, even long after production.

The Alchemists also often had Pb, C and O in addition to K (an electron donor/stimulator for active agent production) in their experiments.

Furthermore, if we are to accept that the Pb is synthesised stepwise via implosion by a process that does not like to make unstable element isotopes, then an interrupted ECCO fuel processor may produce an unusual ratio of 204Pb since naturally it only constitutes 1.48% of Pb, with isotopes 206, 207 and 208 supposedly coming from radioactive decay of unstable elements. It is therefore extremely important to do a mass analysis on the ECCO fuel and determine the 204Pb abundance.

It must be noted that Zr is double Ca which is energetically favourable and there are vast numbers of nucleon exchange reactions that produce Ca, and 32 fusion reactions. Bolotov also noted that Zr is double Ca in his patent.
Screen Shot 2018-05-16 at 08.41.18.png

Figure 13: Bolotov noting the relationship between Ca and Zr SOURCE

We have previously discussed the production of Zr in LION reactors.. It is quite clear that appearance of Zr is an important sign of LENR reactions.

Interestingly, Bolotov has a wide range of inventions, one such invention claimed to produce Silicon from Al and P. Looking at the nucleon exchange data, we can see the second and fifth most energetically favourable reactions are conversions of Al + P > Si + Si. Again, we see that the data supports the hard one empirical findings of a seasoned researcher. This may also be why P is often not observed in George Ohsawa reactions (in addition to its low boiling point) and one reason why it’s abundance in the crust is significantly below that of Si.

Moreover the patent says that high current density is required.

“A method for producing silicon comprising the production of high pressure elemental silicon from chemical elements of aluminium and phosphorus by the action of an electric current of a density greater than 1011 A / m^2”

So like many researchers, high electron density precipitates the effect. One such researcher, V. Krivitsky, proposes pulses of 7-10kA at 1000V with a frequency of 450kHz. a claim that has similarities to both Adamenko and Ralkar.

What then is ‘New Fire’ Fuel?

The implications of this work is that the New Fire, ‘LENR fuel’ has to have the active agent + elemental feedstock rather than just the elements that made the active agent (which may include some of those in the elemental feedstock). No active agent, no reactions.

Piantelli told us, you can make the ‘fuel' externally to the reactor or in the reactor and did both. This expressly implies that the elements themselves are insufficient.

me356, Suhas Ralkar, Holmlid and likely Rossi make it externally - it is the natural thing to do once it is understood at least on a cause and effect basis. From a commercial point of view, it also makes sense to not have the sold reactor able to produce the active agent. Moreover, you would engineer the sold reactor to cause the rapid degradation of the active agent if the sold reactor is tampered with. In this authors view, simple contact with water or moist air would be adequate.

Hutchison guided the nucleated active agent to the work area and grew and manipulated them there. Egely, Adamenko and others make the active agent in the reaction zone and then stimulate it at same time. Shoulders did both - you know this because he says he can store in metals indefinitely until intentionally put to work.

In the case of ECCO, more PbO could be added to the active agent containing seed ‘fuel’ as feedstock to enable longer duration reactions.

Targeting valuable metals

We have already started to discuss the production of Gold, so lets look at another valuable metal. At the time of writing, the value of Ir is over $43300/kg. By looking at the atomic volume chart and taking the view that the process is an implosive one, we know that we will need an element above the mass of Ir that has as high atomic volume as possible and one that is right at the other end of the periodic table, preferably, again with high atomic volume. The most favourable reactions will be those that can lead to the lowest atomic volume of the solid/liquid products whilst maintaining stability, that these will yield the most energy output may mean that, under the right circumstances, the overall net energy balance may be positive.

The obvious heavy (alchemical) metals for this purpose are

Metal$/kg at time of writingMelting pointToxicityReactions
Bi10-25271.4 °CLowElement1 + Bi > Element3 + Ir
Pb2.58327.5 °CHighElement1 + Pb > Element3 + Ir

Table 4: Proposed reactions to target production of Iridium

Rhodium is even more valuable, at the time of this writing it is nearly $72000/kg So perhaps voltage biased, high current/voltage, high frequency discharges through molten lead chloride might yield valuable precipitations of Rhodium and evolution of Xenon gas. This is not a reaction for the average home-lab however. The interesting point here is that the noble gas Xe produced has a high atomic volume, something to consider.

Another option might be discharges through Zn and Pb, since they have similar low melting points, and the products, Rh and Ho have very high melting points.

Conclusion

This author has already written about some of the physical observations one can look for both during an experiment and after that indicates presence of the active agent.

In the view of this author, feedstock choices depend on many factors, some of which, in no particular order are:

  • electrical conductivity
  • electronegativity
  • melting point and miscibility of components
  • strength of the active agent / driving intensity and resonance (relates to level of implosive action)
  • the net atomic volume of solid/liquid products compared to feedstock which is related to energetic favourability of the product balance

By having an idea of the output elements desired one can use the data provided by Dr. Alexander Pakhomov at FusFis.org, to establish potential reagent / element / phase choices for a process to target an element.

Non-exhaustive overview of some ’New Fire’ embodiments

The active agent can be made, stored, grown, harvested, used and abused in a variety of ways to effect excess heat, light, electricity, particles, transmutation and more. For examples, as shown above, the active agent can be advantageously used with element combinations that lead to desirable energy or element production. Choice of isotopes to use as feedstocks with the active agent would depend on physical parameters such as pressure, temperature, corrosiveness, phase, electro-negativity etc.

Natural Lightning

Make and break in bolt
Make and sustain in persistent ball lightning

Organic Life

Synthesises / captures and uses very small active agent

Mexican Alchemists

Harvested from environment and deployed

Tesla

Harvested from dry Utah environment and made active agent.

Henry Moray

Harvested from dry Utah environment and grew active agent ( acts like Dyson Air Multiplier description/patent )

Boris Bolotov

Made and destroyed active agent in an instant

Joseph Papp

Made active agent externally for first patent and internally to reactor for later patent, grew and harvested.

George Ohsawa

Made and destroyed active agent in an instant

John Hutchison

Guided nucleated active agents to zone where they were grown and manipulated. Typical transmutation was Al + Al > Fe

Kenneth Shoulders

Made, grew, stored and deployed in apparatus using say Hg and Kr

Alexander Chernetski

Made, grew and destroyed in apparatus with some ancillary effects of destruction observed

Pons and Fleischmann

Made, grew and triggered, with one major example of extreme.

Francesco Piantelli

Made, grew and harvested

Canon Patent

Made and then deployed active agent in cell

German Patent

Made and then deployed active agent in cell with D and Xe, both optimal in their own right for construction, leading to D + D fusion since D + Xe is less energetically favourable There is 31 possible D + Xe nucleon exchange reactions, but only 2 are more energetically favourable than D + D fusion and each DD fusion halves the distortion in the physical vacuum, making it highly desirable in an implosion basis.

Stanislav Adamenko

Made and destroyed active agent in an instant, saw wide range of ancillary effects of destruction.

Norris Peery

Made, grew and over excited to destruction in reactor.

Andrea Rossi

Made active agent in cell, likely first with the good old alchemical choice of K for lower temperature activation, then later Li for higher temperature operation and better yield, in combination with Al, which has a both nucleon exchange and fusion reactions to Fe that can then progress to Ni and Cu

Francesco Celani

Made, grew and sustained in wires

George Egely

Made, grew and over excited to destruction in reactor.

Leif Holmlid

Made and fed active agent and observed breakup.

Suhas Ralkar

Made, Grew and stored active agent in metal fuel externally. Cyclically, grown, harvested and destroyed in reactor

Anatolij Vachaev

Similar to Bolotov’s 1956 work, made and destroyed active agent in an instant

Clean Planet/Mizuno

Similar to Canon patent, but simplification. Made, grew and over excited to destruction in reactor

LION reactor 1/2

Strange radiation and other tracks similar to Shoulders observations + transmutation of materials, including to Zr observed.
Nucleated active agent in core. Grown over days in reactor materials.


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Great Article, thanks to all

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Jouni Tuomela - comment on ECW

Does this have any relevance

"In a micro-bubble implosion, a unique phenomenon occurs in which ions (charged particles) converge to a single point in space at half the speed of light. This phenomenon, which looks like the opposite of the Big Bang, is essentially different from any previously discovered or proposed acceleration principles."

Answer:

Good find Jouni and yes - very relevant.

This is Excellent verification of both LeClaire / Nanospire (who also often used laser pulses for cavitation), and Suhas Ralkar fuel processing. Both have cavitation, though I believe that Nanospire's / Ralkar's approach of having the bubble collapse asymmetrically against a ridged lattice, resulting in the bubble forming a 'spire' is more energetic and active due to induce helicity not present in symmetric collapse.

As I have said in previous presentations, I believe that the accelerated protons are those that are ejected from, in Adamenkos words, the "electron-nucleon macro-cluster" as heavier elements are formed which need to loose protons to ensure stability.

IMPO, they will find that they have synthesised elements.

·

However, the melting point of Pb is very low. When the temperature is high, Pb melts and the fuel powder sticks together.
Pb should be a substance produced by the LNER reaction. I think Pb is not an active substance.

·
·

The presentation goes to great lengths to show evidence that Pb is a product of the active agent.

The active agent, when driven at a certain level and presented with say PbS or PbO or Pb and C may yield other elements and products.

No active agent and it does not matter what else is in the cell.

MK - Comment on ECW

Bob, thank you, extremely interesting and brilliant. A thought regarding the old russian table: could it be the atomic mass devided by the density in g/cm3? Do I understand correctly: The active agent (evo or some interaction of something with evo) transforms atoms to an intermediate state (confined energy?) This will "crystalize" to an energetically and volume favorable stable isotope ? If I understood that and hutchinson effect partially correctl: Could a plane be naturally enriched with evos? ( a lot of friction with air producing static electricity and discharges contact with charged regions of air ( thunderstorms) then storage in aluminum. Could that be one reason why old planes are stored in deserts and not wrecked immediately?

A definition of atomic volume

In a previous blog you can see I calculated the atomic volume and it matched the Russian encyclopedia (attached copy of chart)

What I actually want to do, is work with Stoyan Sarg this summer and produce a "Nucleus distortion of the physical vacuum chart" for all elements - and ideally all stable isotopes - This would, IMPO, be a much better metric than the old soviet atomic volume chart - this kind of fails a little on noble gasses etc.

I think people need to spend a little time thinking about WHY over 33 years, Kenneth shoulders did the following on naming what he considered the active agent, especially in context with all the things I have been sharing since September 2017.

  1. Latin for "Strong Electron" was his first name.

  2. Charge Cluster ( Recognising that it is not just electrons, but also entrained positive ions of any element)

  3. Exotic Vacuum Objects

Think long and hard about WHY he settled on the last name... What is he trying to tell those that follow.

Yes there is an intermediate state. It is confined. On the term "Crystalise" it is clear you have been following the O Day hints and media - more on this in coming presentations, things will become increasingly obvious. Yes to favourable isotope that balances both inputs and the level of 'drive'.

EVOs are massively harvested by planes naturally. In this last blog, I Mentioned how Ancient Mexican Alchemists, Moray, Tesla captured, grew and deployed them. You can listen to this Soundcloud where the interviewee reveals how planes need to be discharged after they land and how a device was developed to capture 'Muons', Cough, ah hem....

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Recommended reading of the recent writings of Ed Lewis on LENR-Forum

Also, one of his references is very interesting... It is a 1996 paper from George Miley who is now an advisor on S.V.Adamenko's US venture, in it he reports:

  • Synthesis of Pb, as in examples given in this presentation
  • Production of Zr (Z=40) and Sn as in ECCO Fuel
  • Massive synthesis of Fe, Cu and Zn - as observed in Hutchison samples

It would be very interesting to do a study of this data with the FusFis.org data.

Alexander Parkhomov observes production of Bismuth, Lead and Mercury from reactors that produced mega joules of excess heat and 'strange radiation' in paper published 15 Feb 2018.

"They are electrically neutral, so they move fairly freely in the substance.
They are able to leave the zone where they occur, and, permeating the substance, cause transmutations in their path. They can go outside the reactor and, getting on a photographic film or other detector, cause in it the appearance of surprising tracks, absolutely not similar to tracks from nuclear particles."

"In addition, the analysis of the substance in the reactor shows the appearance of heavy elements (bismuth, lead, mercury, silver, lanthanides, etc.)"

This where none of these heavy elements were present before.

In other images shared by MFMP in the past of some of these reactors, he observed similar 'scalloped' features in glass as observed in LION quartz.