By ignoring the often touted notion that Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) is impossible and taking the view that it is both a natural and ubiquitous process, let’s let evidence guide us.
Earth’s crust atomic abundance
Ever wondered why elements have the abundance they do in the earths crust?
George Ohsawa reactions
Perhaps George Ohsawa reactions can give us a clue?
|C + N > Al||17.3006 to 23.3442|
|N + O > P||19.8036 to 26.6528|
|C + O > Si||16.7557 to 26.759|
|C + C > Mg||13.9305 to 22.4648|
|Al + Al > Fe||21.8426|
|Al + N > Ca||21.4383|
|Al + O > Sc*||23.0787|
|N + N > Si||24.6427 to 27.5322|
|O + O > S||16.5396 to 28.3202|
|Si + O > Ti||14.944 to 23.2622|
|Si + N > Sc*||16.7203|
|Mg + N > K||19.4347 to 23.6301|
|Mg + O > Ca||16.181 to 24.5411|
|Ti + Si > Cu||15.9397 to 20.0402|
|Ti + O > Zn||12.7214 to 21.0965|
So the reactions observed in NOVA testing have net energy releases according to Dr. Alexander Parkhomov’s data of between 12.7214 and 28.3202 MeV.
*Not observed by Dr. George Egely, perhaps because it has quite high atomic volume and there are energetically favourable reactions of Sc with O > Cu, with N > Ni, with H or D > Ti. Also if first F is produced by combining H/D with O then this fusing with Sc produces Zn.
In addition, there are some net positive nucleon exchange reactions between George Ohsawa reaction products, just looking at the 2º ones for example:
|Al + Si > H/D + Fe||4.0082 - 11.68|
|Si + P > H/D + Ni||0.7545 - 8.3052|
|Al + P > the elements He, Fe, Si, C, Ti, Mg, S, O, Ne and Ar||0.122 - 12.1784|
With the most energetic of the Al + P reactions producing 4He and 54Fe, both elements with low distortion of the physical vacuum according to Stoyan Sarg.
Explaining ECCO fuel
Analysis of part processed fuel showed large quantities of Pb, Zr and Nb, not meant to be in starting materials
Processed ECCO fuel had a lot of Pb, Zr, Nb in it as well as indications of Sn in addition to the H2O, Ti, C, Ni that were used. It was said by the inventor, Suhas Ralkar, that Tungsten (W) was added as a milling agent, however only some samples showed potential traces of W.
Strange radiation was observed emanating from ECCO fuel by various methods
Other researchers that observed similar large scale synthesis of Pb
LeClaire / Nanospire, USA
Possibly similar to the ECCO fuel processor in that in both cases there was cavitation in water - Initial element combination were not the same however. LeClaire observed all elements including radioactive ones and in this authors opinion, this was because the active agent was driven very hard (leading to high mass isotopes) and destroyed, resulting in production of radioactive isotopes.
Mark LeClaire said in an interview on smart scarecrow show that it was easier to make
lead than to make gold.
S. V. Adamenko / Proton 21 Lab, Ukraine
This was an intense electrical discharge into a rounded end shaped fine anode of a pure metal.
Adamenko used a "metal-dielectric-semiconductor" detector in the overall setup they developed as shown below.
The detector so designed is interesting, because it has the very good conductor Aluminium on the surface (4th best), often shown to be the most easily effected by John Hutchison. With it’s Metal / Dielectric / semiconductor structure, it also has impedance changes, which, according to shoulders observations, exotic vacuum objects (EVOs) do not like to pass through. Additionally the thin film of oil provides ready C and H.
The mystery of missing Tungsten (W)
When the MFMP first reported the elemental composition of part processed ECCO fuel ascertained by Masaryk University SEM operators to Suhas Ralkar, there was shock and disbelief. The high concentrations of Pb, Zr and Nb especially and traces of Sn made no sense, the whole purpose of the ultrasonic processor was to reduce the grain size of the source metals to around 5um. It was postulated that due to the high natural critical temperatures of Nb, Pb and Sn (in addition to the Ti that was in the inputs), the system was favouring 'highest temperature' elemental superconductors (though still very low!) A possible explanation for this was that the active agent may be atomising the elements, in which case, there is no lattice to support thermal vibrations and so the actual temperature may be in the low single digit Kelvins in the range these atoms super-conduct, this concept was presented at Asti on June 9 2017.
Suhas also claimed that Tungsten (W) was added to the raw materials to act as a milling agent, however we did not detect any W in the processed material above the SEMs certainty threshold (0.1 % in places and then only in some samples). At the time we honestly thought that it must have been omitted from the inputs of the sample we reviewed. As this blog was being written, Suhas wrote on a public forum
"You surely remember my telling you our Tungsten powder based ultrasonic milling during fuel preparation and then allowing part tungsten powder to remain in fuel."
- Suhas Ralkar, ECW, 13 May 2018
So we have a situation where W, if it was there, has disappeared, Pb and Zr have appeared in abundance with traces of Sn. So, does Dr. Alexander Parkhomov's data help us explain these observations?
|1||O+O > S||16.5396 to 28.3202||4 outcomes, most likely is with two O16 leading to S32|
|2||S+W > Zr+Sn||97.6718 to 107.1535||33 reactions, 15 with S32, all isotopes of Sn except 112, 114,115 synthesised which incidentally have lowest natural abundance|
|3||Ar+Pb < Sn+Sn||-119.3086 to -127.9612||Ar off-gassing may prevent a reversible reaction. Sn isotopes not produced in #2 are not needed. Also, Sn117 not used, possible reason for the very small amount of Sn?|
|4||Ca+Ca > Zr||2.597 to 6.214||There are two Ohsawa paths to Ca|
|5||H/D+C > N||7.3933 to 16.1596||Part of CNO Cycle|
|6||H/D+N > O||12.1262 to 20.8925||Part of CNO Cycle|
|7||H+Zr > Nb||5.9569 to 12.4187||Production of Nb observed by both LeClaire and Adamenko where none present before|
If the ECCO fuel preparation reaction path is as above, the W would be converted to isotopes of Zr and Sn (reaction #2). All of the Sn isotopes that are produced are used to synthesise Pb and Ar except Sn117 (reaction #3), which may account for the very small residual amounts of Sn. The overall reaction might not be reversible as the Ar produced may leave the water/reaction or because it is noble / not conductive.
All isotopes of Zr are produced by reaction #2, however, Zr can also be produced by fusing two Ca atoms, with one source of calcium atoms coming from George Ohsawa reactions. Also there is 16O + 204Pb > 96Zr + 124Sn : 143.9568 MeV with the 2 x Sn exchange to Pb + Ar, leading to a iterative settling of the overall mixture, including a reduction in 204Pb and skew to higher mass isotopes of Pb, just as observed in nature.
The abundance of Zr produced could lead to the observed Nb, given the presence of H (reaction #7) in H2O. The small amount of Si observed in one sample area could be due to standard Ohsawa reaction between C and O.
The proposed reaction considers the energetically favourable nature of the individual steps with all but the Sn+Sn > Ar+Pb reaction being net positive. It is this authors hypothesis that a hard driven reaction
In both Bolivian and Cornish Tin Oxide bearing seams, it should be noted that Wolframite is also found.
Pb based nucleon exchange reaction
There are 19466 nucleon exchange reactions that have a net positive yield with isotopes of Pb
Interestingly, out of all 516790 net positive nucleon exchange, 1389 fusion and 818 fission reactions, the following, noted above, is the 4th most energetic.
Moreover, the atomic volume chart indicates that production of both Zr and Sn is favourable in an implosive process and the Earth’s crust abundance lends billions of years of evidence that this reaction path is desirable since both elements have high abundance relative to those adjacent to them. Furthermore Pb is often found naturally with several impurities.
- Tin and Antimony which has favourable nucleon exchange reactions of Pb with Cl, K and Ca.
- Silver which has favourable nucleon exchange reactions of Pb with Cl and K
- Copper which has favourable nucleon exchange reactions of Pb with Cl, K, Ca, P, Cl and Ar., and
Lead is often found naturally as Gelena or Lead (II) Sulphide - PbS - and there are a number of exchange reactions that yield Sn from S and Pb, however, it must be noted that S is just 2 x O as per George Ohsawa, so as a multi-atom nucleon reorganisation, it would be better to split the S and do O + Pb reactions.
So a reactor with the molten PbO electrolyte yielding 75 reactions, 25 of which exceed D + D fusion yield, would be ideal with the active agent in it stimulated, or nucleated and controlled. Use of molten PbO and discharges with electron promoters is exactly what is in the Ukrainian Borys Vasylyevych Bolotov’s 2001 priority patent, as discussed in the previous blogpost on making gold.
The most energetic is the following
It is interesting to note that without Suhas Ralkar actually intending it to, the ECCO reactor has Pb in addition to C and O and we have established it has the active agent in it as it produces copious amounts of strange radiation, even long after production.
The Alchemists also often had Pb, C and O in addition to K (an electron donor/stimulator for active agent production) in their experiments.
Furthermore, if we are to accept that the Pb is synthesised stepwise via implosion by a process that does not like to make unstable element isotopes, then an interrupted ECCO fuel processor may produce an unusual ratio of 204Pb since naturally it only constitutes 1.48% of Pb, with isotopes 206, 207 and 208 supposedly coming from radioactive decay of unstable elements. It is therefore extremely important to do a mass analysis on the ECCO fuel and determine the 204Pb abundance.
It must be noted that Zr is double Ca which is energetically favourable and there are vast numbers of nucleon exchange reactions that produce Ca, and 32 fusion reactions. Bolotov also noted that Zr is double Ca in his patent.
We have previously discussed the production of Zr in LION reactors.. It is quite clear that appearance of Zr is an important sign of LENR reactions.
Interestingly, Bolotov has a wide range of inventions, one such invention claimed to produce Silicon from Al and P. Looking at the nucleon exchange data, we can see the second and fifth most energetically favourable reactions are conversions of Al + P > Si + Si. Again, we see that the data supports the hard one empirical findings of a seasoned researcher. This may also be why P is often not observed in George Ohsawa reactions (in addition to its low boiling point) and one reason why it’s abundance in the crust is significantly below that of Si.
Moreover the patent says that high current density is required.
“A method for producing silicon comprising the production of high pressure elemental silicon from chemical elements of aluminium and phosphorus by the action of an electric current of a density greater than 1011 A / m^2”
So like many researchers, high electron density precipitates the effect. One such researcher, V. Krivitsky, proposes pulses of 7-10kA at 1000V with a frequency of 450kHz. a claim that has similarities to both Adamenko and Ralkar.
What then is ‘New Fire’ Fuel?
The implications of this work is that the New Fire, ‘LENR fuel’ has to have the active agent + elemental feedstock rather than just the elements that made the active agent (which may include some of those in the elemental feedstock). No active agent, no reactions.
Piantelli told us, you can make the ‘fuel' externally to the reactor or in the reactor and did both. This expressly implies that the elements themselves are insufficient.
me356, Suhas Ralkar, Holmlid and likely Rossi make it externally - it is the natural thing to do once it is understood at least on a cause and effect basis. From a commercial point of view, it also makes sense to not have the sold reactor able to produce the active agent. Moreover, you would engineer the sold reactor to cause the rapid degradation of the active agent if the sold reactor is tampered with. In this authors view, simple contact with water or moist air would be adequate.
Hutchison guided the nucleated active agent to the work area and grew and manipulated them there. Egely, Adamenko and others make the active agent in the reaction zone and then stimulate it at same time. Shoulders did both - you know this because he says he can store in metals indefinitely until intentionally put to work.
In the case of ECCO, more PbO could be added to the active agent containing seed ‘fuel’ as feedstock to enable longer duration reactions.
Targeting valuable metals
We have already started to discuss the production of Gold, so lets look at another valuable metal. At the time of writing, the value of Ir is over $43300/kg. By looking at the atomic volume chart and taking the view that the process is an implosive one, we know that we will need an element above the mass of Ir that has as high atomic volume as possible and one that is right at the other end of the periodic table, preferably, again with high atomic volume. The most favourable reactions will be those that can lead to the lowest atomic volume of the solid/liquid products whilst maintaining stability, that these will yield the most energy output may mean that, under the right circumstances, the overall net energy balance may be positive.
The obvious heavy (alchemical) metals for this purpose are
|Metal||$/kg at time of writing||Melting point||Toxicity||Reactions|
|Bi||10-25||271.4 °C||Low||Element1 + Bi > Element3 + Ir|
|Pb||2.58||327.5 °C||High||Element1 + Pb > Element3 + Ir|
Rhodium is even more valuable, at the time of this writing it is nearly $72000/kg So perhaps voltage biased, high current/voltage, high frequency discharges through molten lead chloride might yield valuable precipitations of Rhodium and evolution of Xenon gas. This is not a reaction for the average home-lab however. The interesting point here is that the noble gas Xe produced has a high atomic volume, something to consider.
Another option might be discharges through Zn and Pb, since they have similar low melting points, and the products, Rh and Ho have very high melting points.
This author has already written about some of the physical observations one can look for both during an experiment and after that indicates presence of the active agent.
In the view of this author, feedstock choices depend on many factors, some of which, in no particular order are:
- electrical conductivity
- melting point and miscibility of components
- strength of the active agent / driving intensity and resonance (relates to level of implosive action)
- the net atomic volume of solid/liquid products compared to feedstock which is related to energetic favourability of the product balance
By having an idea of the output elements desired one can use the data provided by Dr. Alexander Pakhomov at FusFis.org, to establish potential reagent / element / phase choices for a process to target an element.
Non-exhaustive overview of some ’New Fire’ embodiments
The active agent can be made, stored, grown, harvested, used and abused in a variety of ways to effect excess heat, light, electricity, particles, transmutation and more. For examples, as shown above, the active agent can be advantageously used with element combinations that lead to desirable energy or element production. Choice of isotopes to use as feedstocks with the active agent would depend on physical parameters such as pressure, temperature, corrosiveness, phase, electro-negativity etc.
Make and break in bolt
Make and sustain in persistent ball lightning
Synthesises / captures and uses very small active agent
Harvested from environment and deployed
Harvested from dry Utah environment and made active agent.
Made and destroyed active agent in an instant
Made active agent externally for first patent and internally to reactor for later patent, grew and harvested.
Made and destroyed active agent in an instant
Guided nucleated active agents to zone where they were grown and manipulated. Typical transmutation was Al + Al > Fe
Made, grew, stored and deployed in apparatus using say Hg and Kr
Made, grew and destroyed in apparatus with some ancillary effects of destruction observed
Pons and Fleischmann
Made, grew and triggered, with one major example of extreme.
Made, grew and harvested
Made and then deployed active agent in cell
Made and then deployed active agent in cell with D and Xe, both optimal in their own right for construction, leading to D + D fusion since D + Xe is less energetically favourable There is 31 possible D + Xe nucleon exchange reactions, but only 2 are more energetically favourable than D + D fusion and each DD fusion halves the distortion in the physical vacuum, making it highly desirable in an implosion basis.
Made and destroyed active agent in an instant, saw wide range of ancillary effects of destruction.
Made, grew and over excited to destruction in reactor.
Made active agent in cell, likely first with the good old alchemical choice of K for lower temperature activation, then later Li for higher temperature operation and better yield, in combination with Al, which has a both nucleon exchange and fusion reactions to Fe that can then progress to Ni and Cu
Made, grew and sustained in wires
Made, grew and over excited to destruction in reactor.
Made and fed active agent and observed breakup.
Made, Grew and stored active agent in metal fuel externally. Cyclically, grown, harvested and destroyed in reactor
Similar to Bolotov’s 1956 work, made and destroyed active agent in an instant
Similar to Canon patent, but simplification. Made, grew and over excited to destruction in reactor
LION reactor 1/2
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