Assange tried to raise $5 Million before Wikileaks launched.
George Soros was asked to fund Wikileaks.
In this post I am going to summarize a 42,000 word email trail.
The emails are between Julian Assange and the early Wikileaks collaborators. Very few people know about them, and the MSM has completely overlooked them.
The emails cover the period between the 3rd October 2006 (the day before the domain Wikileaks.org was registered) and 8th January 2006.
Links to the source documents are below, you are welcome to read all 42,000 words and judge for yourself.
I wonder if we should call them the WikiGate emails?
Truth Fears No Investigation - Let’s Investigate!
In the emails below Assange states that Wikileaks could operate on much less than $50,000 a year.
Why did he seek $5 Million? That’s enough money to survive for over 100 years. Sure, costs increase and you eventually need to employ staff but geez, that’s a lot of money!
Why would an investor fund a non-profit alternative news media organization, with no known revenue model and no working website?
Yes, there are some ethical investors that support causes, but the emails below show Assange chasing Soros’ money. Soros is a very evil man. I don’t have one good word to say about the man.
Some of the most successful start-ups in history did not need anything close to $ 5 Million.
Andy Bechtolsheim was the first outside Google investor - he invested $100,000.
Peter Thiel was the first outside Facebook investor - he gave Zuckerberg $500,000.
Neither Google nor Facebook had a revenue model when these investments were made.
Before we deep dive into the email and money trail, we need to jump back in time and take a quick look at Cypherpunks.
CypherPunks - John Young & Julian Assange
1993 Cover of Wired Magazine with Anonymous Masks
The 3 founders of Cypherpunks were the cover story of a 1993 Wired magazine article.
Why were they wearing anonymous masks for the cover photo as they revealed their identities in the article?
Don’t overlook the Russian iconology in the bottom right corner. Well it looks Russian - let me know if it isn’t, and let me know what it means if it is.
A cypherpunk is an activist advocating widespread use of strong cryptography and privacy-enhancing technologies as a route to social and political change.
The cypherpunks mailing list was started in 1992, and by 1994 had 700 subscribers. Source - Wikipedia - Cypherpunk
John Young joined the cypherpunk mailing list in 1994.
John Young registered the domain name Wikileaks.org, .cn and .info (in his own name) on October 4, 2006.
Julian Assange joined the cypherpunks mailing list in 1995.
Notable cypherpunks include:
- John Young - former architect, anti-secrecy activist and co-founder of Cryptome.
- Julian Assange - WikiLeaks founder and International Man of Mystery.
- Suelette Dreyfus - co-author (with Assange) of Rubberhose and author of ‘Underground: Tales of Hacking, Madness and Obsession on the Electronic Frontier’ (researched by Assange).
- Steven Bellovin - Chief Technologist for the US Federal Trade Commission.
- Jacob Appelbaum - core member of the Tor Project.
- Brian LaMacchia - research head at Microsoft Research.
- Ben Laurie - Wikileaks Advisory Board, Google engineer, founding director of The Apache Software Foundation and core team member of OpenSSL.
- John Gilmore - Sun Microsystems 5th employee, co-founder of Cypherpunks and the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF).
- Timothy C. May - Assistant Chief Scientist at Intel and Founding member of Cypherpunks.
- Jon Callas - Co-Founder and Chief Technical Officer of PGP Corporation and technical lead on OpenPGP specification.
- Hal Finney - main author of PGP 2.0 and the core crypto libraries of later versions of PGP.
- Bram Cohen - creator of BitTorrent.
- Alex Fowler - Mozilla.
- Mike Godwin - Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) lawyer.
- Robert Hettinga - Founder of the International Conference on Financial Cryptography and originator of the concept of financial cryptography e.g cryptocurrencies.
- Marc Horowitz - author of the first PGP key server.
- Eric Hughes - founding member of Cypherpunks, author of ‘A Cypherpunk's Manifesto’.
- Isak Johnsson - Creator of the Stuxnet (malicious computer worm) responsible for causing substantial damage to Iran's nuclear program. Although neither country has admitted responsibility, the worm is now generally acknowledged to be a jointly built American-Israeli cyberweapon. Source - Wikipedia - Stuxnet
- Werner Koch - author of GNU Privacy Guard.
- Paul Kocher - President of Cryptography Research, Inc.
- Moxie Marlinspike - founder of Signal.
- Zooko Wilcox-O'Hearn - founder of ZCash.
- Philip Zimmermann - original creator of PGP v1.0.
Cypherpunks mailing list included many very bright, powerful, connected and wealthy individuals in the fields of technology and cryptography.
I am not implying anything by sharing some of the notable names from the cypherpunks list - other than to prove that Julian Assange, John Young and other cypherpunks were members of a very elite network in the early 1990’s.
Some of them would go on to become early collaborators and supporters of Wikileaks.
John Young & Cryptome
Cryptome had been exposing state secrets for 10 years before Wikileaks arrived on the scene.
Cryptome is still online today. I found email communications between Assange, Young and other early Wikileaks collaborators in its directories.
Cryptome is a private foundation and website created in 1996 by John Young and Deborah Natsios and sponsored by Natsios-Young Architects. The site collects information about freedom of expression, privacy, cryptography, dual-use technologies, national security, intelligence, government secrecy. Source - Wikipedia
On a side-note - have you seen John Young splashed on the cover of Time Magazine, The Economist and every newspaper and tv channel in the world - like Julian Assange?
Real whistleblowers don’t become media celebrities and pop-culture icons - and they certainly don’t have statues erected in their honor.
We will now follow the email and money trail.
I have yellow highlighted the key points to save you time.
If you have trouble reading the emails, simply right click and open the image in a new tab and it will be much clearer.
October 3, 2006 - Assange Asks Young to Register Wikileaks.org
October 4, 2006 - Young Registers Wikileaks.org, .cn and .info
December 9, 2006 - Assange Registers Wikileaks to Speak at World Social Forum in Nairobi, Kenya
Assange will spend the next 2 years living in Africa.
December 9, 2006 - Email to Daniel Ellsberg
I suspect that the New York architect is John Young and that the infamous US ex-hacker is Julian Assange.
Julian uses the word ‘firmament’. It is a biblical word and this is the first of 6 occasions where he references the bible, or uses biblical words in these emails.
He also used the word ‘sanctified’ (2nd biblical reference) in the image below, which is from the same email above - I separated it into two images so that you could more easily read it but it is one email.
What is the etymology of sanctified?
to make holy or legitimate by religious sanction. Source: Etymonline
If you read Part 1 of this series you will see evidence linking Assange to a pseudo-Christian/Hindu cult called The Family. Assange was definitely connected to the cult - how closely he was connected is the only question!
This may explain why he references bible verses, or uses biblical words, at least 6 times in the emails, (I may have missed some)? It may also give us an insight into how he sees himself, and/or what his cause/motive/agenda is?
act like brazen young men and get away with it
Assange’s step-father, Richard Brett Assange was an actor!
What is Assange trying to get away with?
December 12, 2006 - IQ.org and The Bible
Before we delve into what Assange may have been pointing to in the bible - let’s make it 100% clear that the domain IQ.org is Julian Assange’s blog.
I jumped on to WayBackMachine and found this snapshot from September 20, 2007 (9 months after he teased selling IQ.org to help fund Wikileaks).
Take a look at Assange’s hair - it has been professionally styled for this photo. I sought a professional opinion. I blacked out Julian’s face and emailed the photo to a friend who is an award-winning hairdresser, this is what she wrote back to me…
look right, look left and you will see the models hair curling out in opposite directions. If it was a windy day the models hair would not be blowing in different directions. No question in my mind, this is a professional photo shoot.
This does not prove anything of course, but as you will later see, Assange is very image/perception conscious.
On the right-hand side of the above image you will see two email addresses for Julian. The first is [email protected] which Julian used in one of the emails below. The second is a Harvard.edu email address. Interestingly, his name is misspelled as Julien, possibly because [email protected] was already taken.
I’m not sure how one secures themselves a Harvard University email address? I suspect that you would need to be a student or a staff member. If this is the case why have we not heard of Assange’s Harvard days?
On Quora I found an answer to the following question:
It seems that Julian was not ‘officially’ a student at Harvard.
Did he work for/with Harvard, or was he an ‘unofficial’ student? How did he get a Harvard email address?
As is the norm with Julian Assange - it is never easy to find conclusive answers. It doesn’t help when he repeatedly refuses to talk about his past in any significant detail - he won’t even reveal his age.
Katie’s comment only received 15 upvotes - one of them from Adam D’Angelo.
Adam was the first Chief Technology Officer at Facebook, he is the co-founder of Quora (a Q&A site) - Adam is worth more than $600 Million.
Adam D'Angelo attended Phillips Exeter Academy for high school. There, he developed the Synapse Media Player (a music suggestion software) along with Mark Zuckerberg and others. Source: Wikipedia
Adam went to high school with Mark Zuckerberg. Source: Wikipedia - Phillips Exeter Alumni
So we have 15 up votes and one of them is from a very, very powerful and influential man who is a childhood friend of Mark Zuckerberg, hmmm?
I will let you decide how much weight to give to this. It could be a coincidence - but I thought that it is was worthy of inclusion on the blockchain.
Let’s now move on to the 3 bible references in the above email.
a biblical character may give christian sanctity
Sanctity means holiness, sacred.
Does Julian believe that he is sacred/holy?
If I wanted to get top dollar for my domain, finding a christian group to buy it from me would not have been high on my list of priorities.
Why was Julian asking his Wikileaks collaborators to spend time suggesting acronyms for IQ.org as a condition of selling the domain and funding WL’s?
I would have thought that they had far more important work to do.
Like developing a working website and pouring over the 1.1 million documents that were apparently ‘leaked’ to them before they launched.
More on the 1.1 million documents soon.
Julian then quotes:
Genesis 22: 7 - And Isaac spake unto Abraham his father, and said, My father: and he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood: but where is the lamb for a burnt offering?
This is the biblical scene where Abraham takes Isaac to a distant place with the intent of sacrificing him for God. Isaac sees the fire and wood but he does not see the sacrificial lamb (symbolic of Jesus Christ). In Part 1 we learned that the cult leader Anne-Hamilton-Byrne believed that she was the literal re-incarnation of Jesus Christ.
Why is Julian Assange (a scientist, mathematician and cryptographer) referencing the bible while talking about ‘donating/sacrificing’ IQ.org? Was Assange pointing to himself, knowing that he would be sacrificed at a later date?
Deep I know. Assange is a deep man and you need to think deep if you desire to know him.
I am of the belief that these bible references did not appear in the email by chance. I believe that he wrote them for a reason. I’m not 100% sure what that reason is just yet, I’m just putting it out there.
Assange’s next bible verse is:
Isaiah 6:10-11 - Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed. Then said I, Lord, how long? And he answered, Until the cities be wasted without inhabitant, and the houses without man, and the land be utterly desolate,
These two verses from Isaiah talk about making the heart of the people fat, with heavy ears that cannot hear and eyes that are shut. It then talks about the cities being wasted and desolate, without one man left to inhabit the land.
The cult that Assange may have been raised in was an apocalyptic, end-time cult. The children were told that the world was coming to an end. Read Part 1 if you’d like more background (highly recommend).
If we look at the preceding verse we see this:
Isaiah 6:9 - And he said, Go, and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not.
It is about people that can hear but cannot understand, and people that can see but not perceive.
This is profound on many levels - the truth is often in plain sight!
Maybe I am looking into this too deeply, maybe not deeply enough? I will let you decide.
Assange never did sell IQ.org.
Julian’s old friend Suelette Dreyfus is listed as the current registrant and Julian has a history of asking his friends to be the registrar of his domain names.
December 25, 2006 - Political, Financial & MSM Support
Assange seeks political and financial support.
WikiLeaks organisers suggested that it "may become the most powerful intelligence agency on earth". Its primary targets would be "highly oppressive regimes in China, Russia and central Eurasia, but we also expect to be of assistance to those in the west who wish to reveal illegal or immoral behaviour in their own governments and corporations." Source: Guardian - Who Watches Wikileaks?
If Wikileaks intended to undermine China, Russia and Central Eurasian regimes - ask yourself, which Governments would be most likely to provide political and financial support to Wikileaks?
The USA and the West spring to mind - in fact, the West is mentioned in the above quote.
Now carefully read the 2nd highlighted sentence from the above email, I quote:
or rather, appear to be, the reclusive ubermench of the 4th estate.
The words, or rather, appear to be are significant - you will soon realize that Assange is highly attuned to the concepts of psychology, perception management, quote sexyness, manipulation, marketing and optics.
Appear to be points back to image, branding and perception.
Reclusive is Assange to a tee.
Ubermench is German and means OverMan - a concept from the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.
The 4th Estate is a segment of society that wields an indirect but significant influence on society even though it is not a formally recognized as part of the political system.
The most commonly recognized part of the 4th estate is the news media. Source: Wikipedia - 4th Estate
I have not spent a great deal of time meditating on these 12 words from Assange’s email but they are significant in my opinion.
or rather, appear to be, the reclusive ubermench of the 4th estate.
I’ve read 42,000 words in the emails alone and the rabbit hole is very deep. My initial take is that Assange intended to create the perception of a new. better, more authentic and credible news media.
Is it a coincidence that MSM is today being labelled as fake news while we see Wikileaks rising in prominence?
I wrote the following in the 5th paragraph of Part 1:
Wikileaks main agenda is to dominate the alternative media narrative.
I think that they’ve been very successful, whether it was their goal or not!
As we progress through this series you will see more evidence to support my claims - stick with me.
In the final paragraph from the email above, we see Assange naming a few of his US, UK & Australian MSM connections and claiming that they have printed his stories in the past.
December 26, 2006 - Wikipedia Connection and 1.1 Million Documents
This may be a little difficult to read so let’s go through it quickly.
Assange states that China, Russia and Central Eurasia are his primary targets and that he is aiming for “maximum political impact”.
In his December 9, 2006 email to Daniel Ellsberg, Assange wrote:
We have received over 1 million documents from 13 countries, despite not having publicly launched yet!
The domain name was registered just 8 weeks earlier, he didn’t have a working a website - somehow Assange received over 1 million documents. This is how he got them, apparently!
Before launching the site, Assange needed to show potential contributors that it was viable. One of the WikiLeaks activists owned a server that was being used as a node for the Tor network. Millions of secret transmissions passed through it. The activist noticed that hackers from China were using the network to gather foreign governments’ information, and began to record this traffic. Only a small fraction has ever been posted on WikiLeaks, but the initial tranche served as the site’s foundation, and Assange was able to say, “We have received over one million documents from thirteen countries.” Source: The New Yorker.
Wired magazine also wrote about this but the link is hiding from me.
If we are to believe this story there are three important take-aways:
- Assange stole 1.1 million documents.
- Assange is disingenuous (at best) - he stated that he received 1.1M documents but it seems that he conspired to steal them.
- Tor Network is not secure.
I’m reminded of what Assange wrote:
WL may become the most powerful intelligence agency on earth.
Jacob Appelbaum was a cypherpunk and a core member of the Tor Project - he was on my list of notable cypherpunks above.
If you control many of the Tor Network Nodes (which my research suggests that people connected to Wikileaks and Cypherpunks do), syphoning the internet traffic and selling it to the highest bidder, including intelligence agencies, is a multi-billion dollar business.
Do you recall in the early 1990’s (part 2 of this series) when Mudge said that he could bring down the internet in 30 minutes? Do you remember part 2 when Assange had complete control of MILnet (the US military internet) for 2 years?
Final paragraph confirms that Advisory Board positions are unpaid - Wikileaks did not need $5 Million!
The 2nd last paragraph from the above email states:
Our initial reputation is carried over form the success of the WikiPedia, but we do not feel this association is, by itself, enough to protect us.
What is your association with Wikipedia Mr Assange?
The email below may shed some light. It was an internal WL’s email thread after they learned that Jimmy Wales (co-founder of Wikipedia), bought the Wikileaks.net domain name, and that he did not buy it for the Wikipedia Foundation but rather for himself.
aids us in projection
Interesting, not a threat but rather an aid.
unusual that Wales didn’t notify us
This implies that it wasn’t unusual that Wales bought the domains - but that it was unusual for Wales not to inform Wikileaks. For all that we know, Wales may have been communicating with Assange privately, as he did with John Young.
To be fair - when you read through all of the emails it is clear that Assange was trying to hitch a ride on the coat-tails of Wikipedia’s early success and widespread adoption. The association to Wikipedia may be nothing more than a reference point, or a model to follow. In fact, the emails clearly state that Wikileaks original plan was to build a community editable platform similar to Wikipedia. Version 1.0 of Wikileaks was such a platform.
Conversely, Assange may have leveraged the 2006 hype that surrounded Wikipedia to his advantage?
If nothing else - it does prove that Assange, and other Wikileaks collaborators, had a friendly relationship with Jimmy Wales.
December 29, 2006 - George Soros Funding
This is the first time that Soros, and Open Societies is mentioned as a possible funding source - it is not the last!
January 4, 2007 - Soros & Unquestioning Obedience to Authorities
It is not easy to read this email I know, sorry about that (right click and open it in a new tab). Links to source documents, and tips on how to quickly navigate through them are below. For now, let me break it down for you.
delicate negotiations with the Open Society (George Soros).
If we believe that these emails are genuine, and I do - then it is clear to me that Assange was negotiating with George Soros in an attempt to raise funds for Wikileaks - maybe also for himself?
If we are to follow the official narrative - I find it very difficult to believe that Assange in 2007, did not know that Soros was a state-sponsored agent, and intimately connected to the elites.
If Assange’s goal was to fleece Soros, why hasn’t Assange exposed him?
We are surprised by the early press interest.
So am I - you don’t have a working website Mr Assange and you haven’t done anything yet - why are the MSM falling over themselves to write articles about you and Wikileaks?
Hello, are alarm bells beginning to ring yet?
We do not believe in unquestioning obedience to authority in all circumstances.
Does that mean that you believe in unquestioning obedience to authority in some circumstances?
January 4, 2007 - John Young Email
John Young has been paying attention and tells them what he thinks of them - nothing more to add.
January 5, 2007 - The Washington Post & Numerous MSM Request Interviews with Wikileaks
Wired, Salon & Other Publications
CKUT Radio Montreal
January 5, 2007 - Managing Perceptions
we have to answer questions before they're asked and we have to answer them with statements that optimize max (journalistic lazynes + quote sexyness).
continually inject our informational strain into the ferment. If we keep our strain (our public positioning ) consistent and quotable we should come to dominate the culture when opposed by relatively random influences of others.
we have a great opportunity -- to push our desired perceptions of what WL is into the world, to set the key in which future bars of our song are to be played by the public orchestra, BEFORE it faces any serious opposition.
I am not serious opposition, I am a lone voice, but I see right through Assange’s and Wikileaks public perception, and ‘quote sexyness’.
I strongly suggest that you re-read the above email at least 5 times and let it sink in - pay attention to words like, inject, public positioning, dominate the culture, consistent and quotable, OPPORTUNITY TO PUSH OUR DESIRED PERCEPTIONS!
These emails were written 11 years ago - it’s time to wake, smell the coffee and swallow the bitter red pill of truth that is sitting right in front of you!
January 7, 2007 - Media Storm Begins
Assange prepares his troops for the impending media storm - which he predicts is coming, next week!
I am going to speculate now - he knew that the media storm was coming because his PR company had already lined up the interviews and prepared him in advance.
PR = Perception Management
We should all recognize by now that perception management was a core principle in Assange’s strategy!
In the above email Assange states that Wikileaks is in a romance with journalists hearts and encourages his team to keep their voices sweet.
Pretty good marketing advice from a geek don’t you think?
Furthermore, shouldn’t Assange already know that journalists have no say into who they interview, which stories to cover and which stories will be presented to the public? Did he not know that the CIA, and other global intelligence agencies vet and approve what we see and don’t see?
After being a member of cypherpunks, after hacking into dozens of intelligence agencies and having “total control of MILnet for 2 years”, and knowing John Young (and others), for well over 10 years - it would be foolish, and naive of me to believe that he didn’t already know this.
January 7, 2007 - Invention of Language
Reading Assange’s invention of language reference reminds me of George Orwell’s 1984 doublespeak and newspeak!
I strongly encourage you to listen very carefully to media interviews with Assange.
Journalists rarely ask him tough questions, and when they do he avoids answering the question and talks as smoothly as a well-trained, media savvy, politician.
Assange is an actor, he’s been well trained, it took me a few years to realize it - he has deceived 99.99% of the world.
I’ve watched his interviews. I will more than likely break them down with you in a future post - stick with me - this is a very complex topic and I know that this is more than likely a very big hump, and very bitter red pill for you to swallow.
January 7, 2007 - WL Can Operate on Less than $50,000 a Year & George Soros
Wikileaks could operate on less than $50,000 a year in 2007 - but Assange wants to secure $5 Million - enough money to last for 100 years!
What does Assange mean when he says that it is ‘OUR’ strategy to foster ‘division and support’ in relation to Soros?
Who is OUR?
Soros has been acknowledged as a significant driving force in creating division, on a global scale, for decades!
January 7, 2007 - John Young Questions $5 Million Funding
Need I say more?
Please read the above email - right click and open it in a new tab.
CIA is the most likely $5 Million funder.
Soros is a suspected conduit for CIA money.
Young wrote this email more than 10 years ago!
January 7, 2007 - Wikileaks is a Fraud
Young states that Wikileaks is a fraud - and that he will release the emails on Cryptome.
Assange asks John Young not to release the emails - even if he believes that the men behind Wikileaks are CIA stooges!
January 8, 2007 - Assange Responds to John Young’s Exit
Assange says that the email threads ‘generally reads well’ and that it ‘sounds like people care’.
He then mentions Wayne Madsen, a long-time anti-Wikileaks dissident.
January 8, 2007 - Zetland says $5 Million Drive is a Bad Idea
January 8, 2007 - Times of London & 1.1M Documents
January 8, 2007 - EFF (Cypherpunks) Offers Assistance
Links to John Young’s Cryptome Emails
TIP: Use ’Control F’ to search the document. Use keywords like 5 Million, 5M, Assange, WL, CIA, Soros etc to zero in on specific content.
Don’t trust anyone, including me - ALWAYS do your own research.
Stick with me through this series - do not read this post in isolation - go back and read the entire series - it’s important that you do!
If you deem one of my points to be invalid - it does not mean that my other points are invalid - we can all nit-pick, that’s the easy thing to do - please don’t ignore the over-riding message and ever increasing body of evidence.
How did Assange get a Harvard email address and why hasn’t a journalist asked him this question?
Assange & Wikileaks spread truth - that is not up for debate - are they working for a higher authority is the question?
What are they not telling you, and who are their leaks impacting is another question, one that we will explore later in this series.
If they are working for an authority - which authority are they working for, and what is their agenda?
I believe that their agenda is to dominate the alternative news media and create a new, more sophisticated media designed to continue deceiving people.
This does not happen overnight - the MSM promotes the new media while it simultaneously discredits itself.
We can’t trust CNN they tell us but we can trust Wikileaks - yeah right.
I’m not naive enough to believe that MSM nonsense.
The best way to control the opposition is to lead it ourselves - Vladimir Lenin
The people that are in control are many steps ahead of us. They foresaw that people would begin to wake up to fake news and Wikileaks is just one of their many solutions and alternatives.
I can truly appreciate how difficult it may be to digest, and believe the information that I have shared with you today.
Truth and red pills are almost always invariably very difficult and bitter to swallow - little surprises me these days.
I’ve swallowed dozens of red pills, they are painful to digest I know.
Digest this information, allow it sink in, swallow the red pill and prepare yourself for my next post.
If you thought that this post was big, you are going to enjoy following me throughout this series - I’m only warming up!
I have more evidence to share with you.
If you don’t agree with all that I have said today - you more than likely will at a future date when the cat is out of the bag.
I’ve known that MSM was fake for a very long time, many other people are arriving at the same conclusion - primarily because the MSM told them.
True whistleblowers do not have statues erected in their honor and you do not see them on the cover or Time magazine.
Think about it for a few minutes!
If you seek truth - you have found a home!
Please let me know what you think about this post in the comments below. I will give you a mention if you can lead me to relevant and credible information.
Please share what you know with me and everyone that you know.
Please consider giving me a big upvote and resteeming this post.
It will allow me to spend more time researching and sharing my findings with you.
Thank you for reading my post.
Till next time…
Yours in Peace, Love & Truth
John Young’s Cryptome Emails
TIP: Use ’Control F’ to search the emails.
Use keywords like 5 Million, 5M, Assange, WL, CIA, Soros etc to zero in on specific content.