Create a RESTful API with Flask #1 : RESTfull Basic structure, Access the API as on the Client and Server, Create a Models

in utopian-io •  last month

Repository

https://github.com/python

What Will I Learn?

  • RESTfull Basic structure
  • Access the API as on the Client and Server

Requirements

  • Basic Python
  • Install Python 3
  • Install flask-restful

Resources

Difficulty

Basic

Tutorial Content

Hi all, in this tutorial I will share how to create a RESTful API using FLASK. for those of you who don't know what API is. The API is a Application Programming Interface (API), So we will not create a website display. We will create a program that can be used by anyone. So later our program can be consumed or can be accessed from all platforms. When we use Gmail, before we use Gmail we must first log in. the authentication system is provided by Gmail so we can log on their side. this tutorial will demonstrate the RESTfull API system in detail using Flask. well, let's just start this tutorial.

RESTful basic structure in Flask

What we will learn first is the basic structure of the API in the flask. For those of you who don't have experience with API, I suggest you learn it first. In this tutorial I will not explain what is Flask ?, you can learn Flask in the curriculum section of this tutorial.

  • Initialization

to make a RESTful API we need to use the flask-restful package. For those of you who haven't installed the flask, configure it in the flask. You can follow my previous tutorial. To use the flask-restful module we have to install it first like the following.

Install flask-restful

pip install flask-restful

Screenshot_6.png

After we have finished installing it, we can use the module in the Flask application as follows:

api.py

from flask import Flask
from flask_restful import Resource, Api

app = Flask(__name__)
api = Api(app)

class User(Resource):
    def get(self):
        return {'name' : 'Millea'}

api.add_resource(User, '/user')

if __name__ == '__main__':
    app.run(debug = True)
  • Use flask_resfull in Flask: We will use two functions contained in the flask_restful module, Resource and Fire from flask_restful import Resource, Api and use the Fire method in Flask api = Api(app).

  • Class for API: I will create a class for the API, to make the API class on the flask, we have to pass the Resource parameter to that class like this class User(Resource):.

  • I will create a get method that we will use to test whether the API is running properly. We can define the get()function for the get method def get(self):.

  • API endpoint: Now I will make an endpoint URL for the API. I use the add_resource() function. In this function there are two parameters. The first parameter is the function we will use and the second parameter is the URL api.add_resource(User, '/user').

  • To run the program that we created, we can run python api.py

Screenshot_7.png

We have done to make access endpoints in the API. We can see what we return in the '/user' endpoint.

Access the API as on the Client and Server

Of course, in reality, the API will be created on the server-side and will be accessed on the Client-side. I will use Postman to consume the API that we created on the Server side. I will use two methods (get and put) that we will use to test the server side and client side on the API that we make.

api.py

from flask import Flask, request
from flask_restful import Resource, Api

app = Flask(__name__)
api = Api(app)

users = {}

class User(Resource):
    def get(self, user_id):
        return {'name' : users[user_id]}

    def put(self, user_id):
        users[user_id] = request.form['user']
        return {'name' : users[user_id]}

api.add_resource(User, '/user/<string:user_id>')

if __name__ == '__main__':
    app.run(debug = True)
  • Import request function: Because we will consume the API on our client, we will use the request function in the module flask. to import it from flask import Flask, request

  • Get method: In the get method I will pass the user_id parameter and then we will store the value in the users = {} and simply pass the value from user_id return {'name' : users[user_id]}.

  • Put method: In the put method we will input data and receive requests from the form frontend users[user_id] = request.form['user'].

Screenshot_8.png

  • Passing parameter: I will pass parameters to the API endpoint to be more dynamic like this api.add_resource(User, '/user/<string:user_id>') We can determine what data type to pass on the endpoint, in this tutorial I pass the type string and the key is user_id.

We will test the two methods we use in the user class.

1. PUT Method

Endpoint : http://127.0.0.1:5000/user/1
http://127.0.0.1:5000/user/2

ezgif.com-video-to-gif.gif

2.GET method

Endpoint : http://127.0.0.1:5000/user/1
http://127.0.0.1:5000/user/2
ezgif.com-video-to-gif (1).gif

As we saw in the picture above we have successfully run the GET and PUT methods. Next, we will discuss the database.

Make a model

Of course, to create an API is not as easy as we have done above, I will start to interact with the database. Models are an important part of database processing because the model is an abstraction from our database table. In python, I will use the peewee database. to install it we can do it like below:

pip install peewee

If you successfully install it there will be a message like a picture below:

Screenshot_9.png

After installing I will create a file with the names models.py for our models. The following is the code:

models.py

import datetime
from peewee import *

DATABASE = SqliteDatabase('coments.db')

class Message(Model):
    context = TextField()
    create_at = DateTimeField(default=datetime.datetime.now())

    class meta:
    database = DATABASE
  • Import peewee: Of course, we will import the peewee that we will use as a database, we can import all function in peewee like this from peewee import *and we can enter the database by using the SqliteDatabase() function then select database SqliteDatabase('comments.db')

  • Create a class in the model: We can take classes in the model with the required parameters, that is, a model like this class Message(Model):. In the class message, I will create two columns in the database which is the first context and the second is created_at.

  • Add the meta class: Then we will add the meta class to define the database that we will use, in this tutorial our database is defined in the DATABASE variable. So we can do like this database = DATABASE.

Well to make models we only need to do the image above. we make models with the OOP concept so later we don't need to create a lot of new files for each model, we just need to create a new class to represent a database table. in the next section, I will migrate to the database. thank you for following this tutorial. hopefully, it is useful for you.

Curriculum

  • Web development with flask

Web developement with python #1 : Flask initialization and Routing system

Web development with python #2 : Templating jinja2 and Method POST on routing system

Web development with python #3 : Get method, Query parameter and Navigate Routing

Web development with python #4: Store cookie and Get cookie in template

Web development with python #5: Web development with python #5 : Session in flask and Login and Logout system

Web development with python #6 : Use flash message and combine it with framework boostrap

  • File in python

File in python #1 : Read file and Write file and Modes file

File in python #2 : The interaction between user input, Read CSV file

File in python #3 : Write CSV file, Read and Write JSON file

  • Class-based views

Tutorial Django - Class based views #1 : Installation and configuration Django, Using a template system

Tutorial Django - Class based view #2 : Use Class based view method and Get and Post method

Proof of work done

https://github.com/milleaduski/python-web-app

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Thank you for your contribution @duski.harahap.
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