Hey hey! I want to talk to again you about logical fallacies! There are oh so many and I'd like to go over them. We are now on to part 6 of my series on Minds. In this series, we are only covering the actual fallacies and what they are, not the application of them or anything outside of the basics.
Remember for your argument to be logical, THOU MUST NOT COMMIT LOGICAL FALLACIES! Instead of just pointlessly copying and pasting, I will describe these in my own words for you, if that isn't your thing, check out the bottom for references. Otherwise, kindly read on...
This fallacy is used regularly to argue religious beliefs without providing any evidence or logical argument to back those claims. Essentially what happens with circular reasoning is the reasoning is circular in the sense that A proves B to be true and B proves A to be true. Typically the false evidence is given in the original statement being made and is a corrupt argument from logos. A great example of this is "the bible is factual and true because it says so in the bible." Another common example we see all the time in the job market is "you need experience to get a job, but you need a job to get experience."
The Complex Question
This one is used all the time to trick people and trip them up. Essentially what is done here is a question is posed with an accusation within the question that could not be answered without incriminating oneself. An example of this could be "Do you think you could get away with cheating and not get in trouble? Answer yes or no!" In this way if you say no, you are indirectly admitting to cheating and if you say yes you are directly admitting to cheating whether or not you actually cheated. The complex question is used to trick people into giving you the desired answer by confusing them with the context.
Confirmation bias is where you seek out information and only notice and share information that confirms your beliefs as opposed to also accepting contrary evidence. We see this very common today in politics that people are in echo chambers, they surround themselves with those who agree with their political views, they even tend to live in neighborhoods with those that have similar views. This makes sense that we want to be around agreeable people who are similar to us, but we take it further and further to the point where anyone who isn't agreeing with us is now seen as a radical or insane. We all suffer from confirmation bias in order to perpetuate our beliefs because why would you want to look for evidence against your beliefs? Well you should look for evidence against your beliefs so that you can challenge your beliefs and either affirm them and prepare for that type of argument in the future or change them accordingly to your realigned value set.
In this bias fallacy, the concept of cost has priority over logic. Typically when someone suffers from cost bias they believe that because something is more costly in terms of money or effort to acquire it. Someone with an awful, barely working car might love their car because it was their first car which they worked on tirelessly and saved up money from their first job to acquire and even though it's barely working they have a cost bias of effort towards its value. What we see most commonly is a cost bias for clothing, cars, status, etc. when someone is aligned with a popular or expensive brand, people assume that the product or owner is better or has more merit because of it. "That guy drives a Mercedes, he must know what he's doing in life!" In reality, he may be struggling with payments to be able to afford this car and his life may be in shambles, but that is a common perspective held when exhibiting cost bias.
This is similar to the normalization of evil where people say things "if it's not broken, don't fix it." This fallacy poses the idea that the most favorable outcome is the one we have now because it's what currently exists and things aren't in ruin. Typically someone with default bias would argue that it's too much effort or impossible to change the current set of affairs and that what we have now is the simplest, easiest, most favorable resolve. This comes up all the time when people suggest new solutions to age old problems.
Check out these 2 resources I like to use and often refer to:
If you love philosophy as much as I do, feel free to give me a thumbs up and share your thoughts. If you want to make sure people aren't committing logical fallacies be sure to REMIND them!
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