#15 "19 - JUNE" in World HISTORY

in history •  last year 

If you think that what happened 200-300 years ago actually took place then you can be in great error. I worked in the library, every few years old books are roasted and replaced by new ones. At the same time, only two copies are left for the next generations.


1678 - A government order was issued ordering the burning of the entire work of the Histoire critique du Vieux

Testament of a priest and biblist of Richard Simon, in which he questioned the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch.

Simon studied in Dieppe, Rouen and Paris. He received permission to devote himself to the specific study of Eastern languages, the Holy Scriptures and the history of the Church. In Paris he became a member of the French Oratory, and on September 20, 1670 he was ordained a priest. In the same year, he published anonymously his first work, in which he defended the Jews from Metz who were accused of murdering a Christian child.

He fell into conflict with the Mauritian and Jansenists, especially with Antoni Arnauld. In 1678, his work Histoire critique du Vieux Testament was to be published, in which he questioned the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch. Arnauld had learned this before and accused Simon of heresy with the help of Bishop Bossuet. The government ruling of 19 June 1678 ordered the incineration of the edition, but several copies survived. In 1678 Simona was removed from the list of members of the Oratory. After some time, he took over the rectory in Bolleville, proposed to him from 1676.
In 1681, against Simon's will, in Amsterdam, on the basis of one of the surviving copies, a reprint of the work was issued, however, it contained many errors. In the same year, a Latin version of the work was also published in Amsterdam. A year later, Simon resigned from the presidency to devote himself completely to biblical studies. In 1685, under the supervision of Simon himself, a revised version of the introduction was published in Rotterdam with the accompanying defense. In the years 1689-1693 he published in Rotterdam three works devoted to the introduction to the New Testament. In them, Simon was the first to state that many manuscripts lack the longer end of the Gospel of Mark and the pericope adulterae (J 7,53-8,11), and Comma Johanneum not only does not appear in the Greek codices but also in the old editions of the Vulgate.
These works have been criticized by both Catholics, Protestants and rationalists. In 1700, the first two works were included in the Index of Forbidden Books. Polemics with the third work, arranged by Bishop Bossuet, was published in Amsterdam in 1753, after the deaths of both Bossuet and Simon. Introductions to Simon's New Testament were translated into German in the second half of the 18th century and published in Halle in 1776-1780, along with a commentary in the rationalist spirit. Simon also translated the New Testament into French, but the Archbishop of Paris, Louis-Antoine de Noailles, forbade the reading of the translation. Before his death, he wrote his books and manuscripts at the cathedral in Rouen.
• Factum, servant de responc qu quint intitulé Abrégé du procéz fait aux Juifs de Mets, Paris, 1670.
• Histoire critique du Vieux Testament, Paris, 1678.
• Histoire critique du texte du Nouveau Testament (Rotterdam 1689)
• Histoire critique des versions du Nouveau Testament, ibid., 1690.
• Histoire critique des principaux commentaires du Nouveau Testament, ibid., 1693.
• Nouvelles observations sur le texte et les versions du Nouveau Testament, Paris, 1695.
• Le Nouveau Testament de notre Seigneur Jésus Christ, traduit sur l'ancienne édition, avec des remarques litterales et critiques sur les principales difficultés, Trevoux, 1702, v. 4.

1900 - The Nobel Foundation was registered.

Alfred Bernhard Nobel (born October 21, 1833 in Stockholm, died December 10, 1896 in San Remo) - industrialist and Swedish scientist, inventor of dynamite, founder of the Nobel Prize.


Intensive work and travel did not leave much time for private life. During this time, he published the following in the press: "A rich, educated senior gentleman is looking for a mature woman, fluent in languages ​​as a secretary and hostess." The Countess Bertha Kinsky von Chinic und Tettau proved most appropriate. She only worked a week with the Nobel Prize, after which she decided to return to Austria and secretly marry count Artur von Suttner. Despite this, Alfred Nobel and Bertha von Suttner remained friends and wrote letters to him until his death. Over the years, the countess became a sharp critic of the arms race. She wrote the famous book "Down with weapons" (Die Waffen nieder) and became a prominent figure in the peace movement. In 1905 she was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Many Nobel companies have developed into international corporations and still play a significant role in the global economy, such as Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) in Great Britain, Société Centrale de Dynamite in France or Dyno Industries in Norway. At the end of his life, Alfred Nobel founded the AB Bofors company in Karlskoga, where Björkborn Manor became his Swedish home. On November 27, 1895, Nobel drafted his last will and signed a will in the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris. He died of a heart attack at his home in San Remo, Italy on December 10, 1896. When his will was opened, it was to many a surprise that his fortune was to be used for rewards in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and peace.
I, the undersigned, Alfred Nobel, hereby declare, after long deliberation, that my last will regarding property is as follows. All remaining assets that can be realized for me are to be distributed as follows: the capital will be safely deposited by the executors in the securities making up the fund, whose percentages are to be distributed in the form of prizes every year to those who brought the greatest benefits to mankind in the previous year. [...]
The Nobel Testament was succinct and clearly worded. The only record regarding the deceased personally was the order to open veins and burn corpses. The rest was about money. The Swedish Academy of Sciences was to be the heir and dispatcher. The testament, however, was questioned by the lawyers of the Nobel heirs and was criticized in Sweden and Norway from various positions. Two people fought for the recognition of the will, convinced that the reward was the result of many years of thinking of the testator, the real result of his life, not an accident, an expression of reluctance towards the family or the symptom of senile dementia. They were appointed by the deceased as executors: Alfred's nephew - Emanuel Nobel and trusted collaborator - Regnar Sohlmann.
Thanks to their efforts, on June 19, 1900, the Nobel Foundation was registered, to which all assets belonging to Alfred Nobel were transferred. This foundation, according to his will, manages his former estate and allocates the interest from him to the payment of his name, the Nobel Prize.

**1960 - British Formula 1 drivers Chris Bristow and Alan Stacey died in the accident at the Formula 1 race of the Belgian Grand Prix on the track near Spa. On the same day, in the course of the AAA series race at Langhorne Speedway near Philadelphia, American driver Jimmy Bryan was killed. **

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