ADSactly Tech News - Genetic Experiments, Developments and Scientific Research Which May Transform Our World in 2018

in genetics •  6 months ago

ADSactly Tech News: Genetic Experiments, Developments and Scientific Research Which May Transform Our World in 2018



Image Source: Forbes

  • Genetic Engineering is a relatively new science and as it progresses people frequently asking questions about this new and strange science.

  • Is it possible to own DNA? What sort of guidelines should be established internationally before persuing more advanced gene editing methods in application to human beings?


In our modern world it is becoming increasingly more difficult to seperate fact from fiction. It is becoming a real challenge to distinguish reality from science fiction.

This is especially the case when it comes to the recent advancements being made in modern genetic engineering and editing techniques. As the world of nature and science blur into one and the same we must take a step back and look at the big picture. In this article I will go into what I've learned the past year about this rapidly advancing field in an attempt to show my readers a glimpse at where we are at in terms of the application of these technologies.

With a good helicopter view of the entire industry and the possibilities present within it, it is my hope readers will be able to make some educated predictions about where this is all going.

Before we get into some of the deep applications of genetic engineering, lets first take a quick look at how it is even done in the first place.

Scientists recently uncovered a new method for modifying genes called CRISPR. CRISPR allows the insertion of specific DNA instructions into a genetic engineering tool that uses a CRISPR sequence of DNA and its associated protein to edit the base pairs of a gene.

We are basically talking about modifying a gene. Doing Mother Nature's job for her. Now scientists have realized that there are many applications in which the new gene editing technology CRISPR can be used.

I suppose now that I've given this new CRISPR method such a grand introduction you'd like to see some examples right? Well what if I told you that there is an Australian geneticist who spends days on the road arguing with critics about Monsanto’s GM soybeans and appears in documentaries, telling the public why genetic modification is safe. What if I told you this same geneticist is working on a project to create what can only be referred to as 'Terminator' cattle?




Image Source: Pixabay

What do you imagine when I refer to these 'Terminator' cattle? Cows running around with guns trying to kill humans? Well, it isn't that bad fortunately... The name comes from the relationship between the word terminate and the word end. A cow that doesn't have the ability to reproduce. Creepy?

After a year of trying, the lab had just used the gene-editing tool CRISPR to add a gene called SRY to some bovine skin cells. And SRY is no ordinary bit of DNA. All on its own, the presence of SRY can make a female turn out to be essentially male—with bigger muscles, a penis, and testicles (although unable to make sperm).

So essentially they have found a way to terminate the female gene to hit the jackpot everytime in creating male cows with bigger muscles, penises and testicles and missing one thing, the ability to reproduce! Offspring terminated before birth!

Beyond simply creating these 'Terminator' cattle, geneticists are making progress in several areas and the progress they are making is unbelievable. The future will look strange indeed.

Gene-editing technology is most commonly being used in application with farm animals. Scientists have used this technology to do some interesting things which include creating pigs immune to viruses and producing sheep that grow longer wool. In fact, they have even made successful efforts to edit dairy cows to eliminate their horns.

The main geneticist behind these new 'Terminator' cattle is Dr. Van Eenennaam.

Now, in the project she calls “Boys Only,” she aims to create a bull that will father only male offspring: either normal bull calves or ones with two X chromosomes but also the male-making SRY. No females at all.

I'm not completely sure but it sounds like this type of tampering with nature could possibly have some unintended consequences we have yet to explore, couldn't it?

Companies are now lobbying the Trump Administration to kill the rules and declare gene-edited animals unregulated. They've warned the White House the U.S. could fall behind countries like Argentina and Brazil.

If Trump goes ahead and kills the rules around gene-editing to make this unregulated, get ready for freak experiments on animals. Is this a slippery slope we are looking at?

Because cattle are tagged, branded, corralled, and slaughtered, as well as being slow to reproduce, they’re actually among the least likely organisms to cause a genetic escape. Van Eenennaam’s long-term goal is to make beef production more efficient. Males yield more meat than females and don’t get pregnant or go into heat. She thinks the ersatz males should be about 15 percent more efficient at turning grass and grain into muscle than females.

This reminds me of the movie Jurassic Park where Dr. Ian Malcolm explains how chaos theory works. You see because blah blah blah, that could never happen! But it will, it always does, we are certainly a naive race at times aren't we?

Creating terminator bulls may be a good idea after all considering artificial insemination is used in only about 4 percent of beef cattle. This is because apparently, it takes a lot of effort in roving the range, gathering cows, and getting them pregnant.

Van Eenennaam's success depends upon her ability to produce male-only bulls which would prove to be a far less expensive way to solve this problem of procreation in bovine!

“A bull is a lot better at doing it than we are,” she says. “And he enjoys it a lot more.”

But the question must still be asked, should we be creating terminator cows in the first place?





Image Source: Maxim

Well, now that I've covered the relationship between farm animals and geneticists lets take a look at how this technology is being applied to humans...

When it comes to developments focused on human beings I must refer to the application of gene editing and modification. Have no doubt, we are entering an age in which gene editing will become a common practice in eliminating genetic disorders in human beings.

If you have the money you will be able to embark on a path to eliminate all undesirable genes from your genetic code, you can spend it on becoming a genetically superior human being. Perhaps in a not too distant dystopian future you would even be deemed as 'more worthy' of passing on your code to offspring.

Genetic screening has become commonplace in hospitals and as far as I understand it, some diseases can even be prevented before a child is born.

Using a swab of saliva from a newborn’s cheek, a new DNA test will probe the baby’s genes to search for 193 genetic diseases, like anemia, epilepsy, and metabolic disorders.

The new procedure is as easy as simply using a swab to take a small saliva sample from a newborn child. It can then be used to detect up to 193 genetic diseases which we may not be able to cure yet but in this rapidly progressing field it wont be long until we can!

The $649 test is meant for healthy babies, as a supplement to existing screening tests. In the US, the government recommends a newborn screening test that looks for a minimum of 34 disorders (though some states have additional requirements as well). The standard test involves a small sample of blood taken from a baby’s heel.

What we are looking at is an advancement which is able to detect over 500% more diseases and with knowledge they are an issue as new treatments become available parents will have the knowledge they need to make informed decisions and potentially push forward on ground-breaking new treatments.

According to Eric Schadt, the CEO of Sema4, one of the companies that offers this genetic screening, he said that the purpose of this new test is to provide more options to parents who would like more information about their child’s genes than standard testing delivers.

He went on to explain that many people suffer for years before they get diagnosed for some of the diseases that his company’s test covers.

“If you can, at birth, canvass some of the most common disorders, you get a better understanding of the health of your child,” Schadt says. “We think parents want the best for their children and are going to do whatever they can so that their child can have the healthiest life possible.”

But is this Gattaca like genetic testing and gene editing something we truly want for humanity?

Are we on the verge of completely transforming the human race with designer genes?





Image Source: Maxim

As the possibility of gene editing in human beings becomes increasingly probable, a lot of ethical challenges and questions are still left unanswered. Is it morally or ethically right to tamper with the human genome in an effort to make more 'perfect' people with greater mental and physical attributes?

Between the modifications being applied to both animals and human beings one thing is certain. Our world will not be the natural one of our ancestors. Technology cannot be stopped just as the sands of time can not be reversed. We are making the world that future generations will have the blessing or hardship of making due in.

I would really like to know how my fellow @ADSactly society members feel about this new era genetic screening and editing.

When it comes to gene modifications, what dangers do you think should be considered before this becomes everyday practice?

And even if we wanted to stop this madness, do you think this genetic revolution could even be stopped?

Here's a chance for the @ADSactly community to leave their thoughts and opinions on this topic!

Thanks for reading.


Authored by: @techblogger

In-text citations sources:

Advances In Genetics Are Setting Off A Fresh Wave Of Ethical Concerns - Forbes

Meet the Woman Using CRISPR to Breed All-Male “Terminator Cattle” - Technology Review

A new DNA test will look for 190 diseases in your newborn’s genetic code - Technology Review

Image Source:

Forbes

Pixabay

Maxim

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Efficiency and accuracy issues aside, I think there's one case and only one case where editing embryos is acceptable: correcting a thoroughly understood disease mutation back to the human genome reference sequence. This is the only case where we know as close to exactly as possible both how the edited genome will influence the embryo (because it's being changed to a sequence that's already vetted in almost every living human) and that the resulting edit is unambiguously beneficial. Anything else is essentially an experiment on an unwitting human subject.

If there's ambiguity in either the reference sequence (like targeting the regions of the genome responsible for individual diversity) or in the "benefits" conferred by the edit (which would be the case for frivolous cosmetic changes), that edit isn't just wrong, it's completely unconscionable.

If an edited embryo is allowed to develop, it's going to produce a conscious individual that has to live with modifications to which it did not consent. So, conferring any edits which aren't so obviously beneficial that nobody could rationally not consent is a violation of the right to self-determination that we should all strive towards, if not have already.

Edits that benefit the parents or society more than the individual are absolutely inappropriate, as are edits whose effects are not completely known (and thus carry risks that the edited individual didn't consent to.) Thus, I think the insertion of novel DNA is and never will be acceptable.

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Very interesting argument and although I agree with your statements 100% I am absolutely sure that there are experiments and testing going on which invalidate your feelings about what is right and wrong. There are biological creatures being brought into this world having been modified and changed before birth. The fringe science that makes all this possible is becoming increasingly sophisticated. A world of superhumans is a likely outcome.

They shall be my finest warriors, these men who give themselves to me. Like clay I shall mould them and in the furnace of war forge them. They will be of iron will and steely muscle. In great armour shall I clad them and with the mightiest guns will they be armed. They will be untouched by plague or disease, no sickness will blight them. They will have tactics, strategies and machines such that no foe can best them in battle. They are my bulwark against the Terror. They are the Defenders of Humanity. They are my Space Marines and they shall know no fear.'

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Excellent quote! Very applicable to this discussion. Cheers!

I enjoyed the post. I didn't feel uncomfortable but I did feel sad. How can I have an edited body and brain after I am already born? :( I want new hardware so I can be a super polyglot and such (we'll probably be using an artificially created language, but you know what I mean). Maybe that will doable too. I'm also a convert to Catholicism and so naturally I think the end of the video on aborted human beings was wrong. I don't think with enhanced technology this will be an issue in the future but you can't solve current problems through the use of violence/barbarism or the dehumanization of the person. With virtually unlimited space and unlimited resources in the universe for the growth of civilization you can always solve problems in other ways.

The development of genetics and modern genetic technologies is accompanied by the emergence of specific ethical problems on three levels:
1.At the individual and family level.
Here, the possible conflict between the principle of respect for individual autonomy, privacy, the rule of confidentiality, on the one hand, and the principle of "do good", on the other, is brought to the fore. The specificity of the ethical problems of medical genetics is rooted in the fact that they are not only individual, but family (or generic) nature, as hereditary diseases of reproductive processes are inherited. And then it turns out that to identify the disease of this particular patient, it is necessary to make the object of the study also a whole group of people – his relatives.
2.At the societal level.
First, the genetic discrimination referred to above can take on the scale of social phenomena, becoming racist stereotypes that justify different attitudes towards different social groups. Secondly, at the societal level, there is a need for broad dissemination of genetic knowledge and for improved biological education of the population. Genetic ignorance, combined with the power of market mechanisms, can lead to negative consequences for society as a whole. It is necessary to develop mechanisms of moral and legal regulation of medical and genetic services, as the principle of "do good", which are guided by the latter, may in certain circumstances come into conflict with the principle of "do no harm". Thus, if a technology brings benefit to an individual, it must at first glance bring benefit to the whole society.
3.At the level of General philosophical understanding of human nature.
Advances in modern genetic biology lead to an exaggeration of the degree of influence of genetic factors on the formation of human behavior. Man is beginning to be seen only as "puppet" their genes, only as a certain set of genes. This belief is called genetic reductionism. This is an extremely simplistic view. Giving preference to heredity, we thereby neglect all that, in fact, is our personality. After all, being human means much more than just having a certain genetic material. Our personal qualities are determined not only by hereditary factors, but also by the environment, communication and our own volitional efforts. The formation of personality is not without reason called "second birth" (the first – biological birth), it is self-creation," self-building", when from the material given by nature, heredity, a person creates himself.

I think a point that everyone is missing is that the incredibly wealthy will have first access to designer babies. Assume that it remains relatively expensive for one generation (10-20 years), this creates a literal visual divide in class, further accelerating prejudice and inequality (it had been shown countless time that the more attractive/taller/more intelligent are more successful). The rich will become then stay attractive/rich and the poor who cant afford genetically engineering will become more and more "unappealing" in comparison, separating humanity. This will literally be the epitome of dystopia

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I couldn't have put this better myself! Enjoy this 100% upvote for putting things into perspective so clearly!

The moment we start to genetic engineering, the rich will start the process of it. The poor will become a set of subhumans and the rich will become a new species all together. Mostly this will cause a ethnic cleansing movement so the set of subhuman species will become extinct. So mope all you want that you won't be there to see this, I'll be happy not seeing it. If u think nuclear war is bad, think about genetic war. One way or another humanity is ending.

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There was a black mirror episode that outlined this exact process. Your thoughts are spot on!

“We are survival machines – robot vehicles blindly programmed to preserve the selfish molecules known as genes. This is a truth which still fills me with astonishment.”
― Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene

technologies give us it.

Thanks for sharing this sir, we are all products of genes

I am a firm believer of there being some good in almost everything.

The "only male cattle"part just hit me in all the possible wrong ways though. Aside from the meet producing industry being one of the arguably least efficient and enviromental friendly processes in the world, nobody can expect me to believe that animals that are tempered to only create male offspring won't have any kind of effect to those that consume them.

I can already see a post apocalyptic scenario unfold where birth control is being monitored by the governments and male children are being killed as they are born and male citizens with the male gene being forbidden to breed.

Meanwhile, vegetarians and vegans rise to power because of their ability to produce female offspring thanks to them never having touched meat.

Many many thanks for the great article sherering the Genetic Experiments, Developments and Scientific Research about this, We have learned a lot about this today, we can learn more in the future from @adsactly

You have a minor misspelling in the following sentence:

In our modern world it is becoming increasingly more difficult to seperate fact from fiction.
It should be separate instead of seperate.

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You should at least commend the writer, are you encouraging other writers?
Will you get known by criticizing people's work?

we should encourage each other
I doubt if you can help others

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Haha thanks for your support! I'm not sure if the grammar nazi is entirely bot or has a human behind it supervising but I agree with your points... Is there any way to code some positive feedback in addition to the useful corrections?

CRISPR ... we have been watching this idea in the sci-fi films now it is going to be a reality. I hope where we are so positive about this growth, there might be some negative part associated as a result of the modifications in the sequence of mother nature.

I am fully agree with you. But in.my opinion when the development is increasing the more and more difficulty we face and technology has remove the natural and nature.

Wow....technology technology .
Its quite intruiging

Good information

Genetically Modified humans that never age would be amazing. But think about it. Humans that dont age!. most old people that u see around u are generally nice to u. that is because they know they r not going to be around forever. they start to think about what happens after death and even nonbelivers will believe in god. so they think that being nice would get them a ticket to heaven. this is why many people are nice. But a world without natural death would mean no consequences for our action.therefore people wont care about others or others feelings. so i really hope if that happens, the government should ban it.

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I can see all sorts of overpopulation problems that may occur from this never-aging postulation. Already it seems that our world is overpopulated and unable to sustain the population in a way that allows the earth space to breathe. Questionable road ahead eh?

1 question I Always wanted to ask @adsactly about genetically engineering that can it change a human beings feelings

You are share good knowledge about technology.

It sounds great to adjust the dna to 'superhumans'. However there are alot of things that are comming to look at it. I think this is a discussion that needs to be not taken lightly and we need opinions from people all over the world.

Thanks sir sharing the genetically post. It is the valuable post for the all people .Resteemit done

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Glad you enjoyed it. Thanks for your support!

Developed countries pay billions annually for scientific research really very wonderful information
A truly unique article with new information
I wish you all the best

@adsactly i'm not more understandable person about Genetic Experiments. but i know some facts about it. firstly i'm very thankful for this knowledgeable blog . you have very good information about it .
and according to my study , i have one important qustion .

Today, we know that DNA is not actually repetitive.
But how did scientists first come to realize that DNA might actually be the genetic material?

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I think scientists have known for a very long time that DNA are the genetic building blocks of biological life.

So their next goal was trying to find a way to alter, edit or create from scratch. Now they have moved on to refining genetic modification processes and finding new and better methods.

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yes @techblogger i agree with hu, and i think in future scientistes will achive succes on to refining genetic modification processses and finding better methods.
and thanku for your feedback. i'll follow you closly @techblogger .
if you don't mind please upvote and follow me. @krishnackt11

So far science and technology have been our friends. With the help of these tools we were able to make this world a happy place for us. Technology is not bad till it is our slave but when it will become our master, it would be the worst time for us. We should praise those scientists who sacrificed their life in finding of truth. They were the gems of humanity.
But now we have different breed of scientists who work for corporate. These so called scientists are not among those for whom science was worship and a matter of living. Now, we have slaves of money who are just serving big corporate and in servicing of their masters they are not hesitating to destroy life on the face of this God forsaken planet.
Forget about robots or deadly diseases, or nuclear bomb. In fact genetic engineering will be the tool of our destruction. Without knowing much about the end results they are forcing their half backed knowledge upon us in the name of innovative technology. Over population is helping them. In the name of feeding this huge population, they are freely performing and applying experiments with the genetic code of plants and animals which will ultimately become a matter of destruction of every life form from the face of the earth.
Example of BT cotton is in India. Monsanto (whom many call an evil corporate) sold this genetically modified cotton in India in the name of fighting bollworm larvae but proved fatal for the farmers. Many farmers were forced to commit suicide on account of using this seed. It was told that BT cotton will fight against pests. It worked for some years but later pests developed resistance. It had terminator technology which means infertile seeds. Farmers were forced to buy costly seeds which were good for nothing. Ultimately, a big loss for them and suicide became inevitable for them.
This is being repeated with other plants and now with animals also. Farmers would buy those seeds and ultimately become slaves to the evil corporations. What will be the outcome of it is not difficult to predict.

Very valuable news Thank you very much Genetic and scientific news for sharing this valuable news among us is really valuable
Sir, you are right, they can be transformed all over the world in 2018 sir. All of your content is very important to us. I think that you cooperate with us very valuable information and if you read your writing, I can take a lot of education. Know what is educational and they can learn something sir i hope you Contain will share among us and we will learn something from them and share your writing with us and cooperate with us. Sir, I know that your community is very beautiful and I want to join your comment and I tried but could not join your link but To add to this community, what do I have to do? Please, please tell me about this community What to do if I want to donate because I do hardwork for steemit and spend a lot of time I want to make my life more beautiful and every creation of my life I want to share with everyone. Please, please join us in this community. Let me know.

@adsactly very scientific your post, not everyone understand this kind of material but I don´t like humans work on this part of genetic because we never know the mistakes they can make and the harm they can do, I respect your post and the knoledge you have