Algerian Revolution(1830-1962):Greatest Revolution Of XXth Century(2) !!
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_I will introduce you to best revolution in moderne era, the Algerian revolutionwhich lasted 132 years for freedom and independence and that in multiple parts ... and we will see Chronology of the Algerian revolution 1830-1962hoping get attention and interest._
Algeria was the biggest target for most military campaigns led by European emperors, kings, princes and pirates. This movement, led by Portugal and Spain, spearheaded the attack on Muslims in northwest Africa, Algeria, to prevent the alleged piracy of Muslims on the Atlantic and Mediterranean shores.
The religious worker played a major role in the creation of the conflict in the western part of the White Sea during more than three centuries. The Andalucians were expelled from Andalusia on behalf of a religious issue, where the Church played an important role in the continuation of the conflict between the two parties. They also declared a quasi-holy war against the progress of the Ottomans In central Aruba, the Church showed its influence in directing the balance of power.
There were also trade competitions between the countries concerned.
During the sixteenth and first half of the seventeenth century, relations between France and the Ottoman Empire were a relationship of friendship and interest that began from the early years of the succession of the Lawgiver Suleiman(1520-1566). This relationship was therefore imposed on Algeria as it is a province of the Ottoman Empire .
It was during the reign of King Francis II I that a military alliance was formed to confront the Spaniards and destroy the Spanish naval force that was seeking to impose its sovereignty over the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian coast ,Under this alliance.
* French were free of navigation in all the territorial waters under their control. France was the first European country to obtain commercial concessions in Algeria after its entry under Ottoman rule. This paved the way for diplomatic relations when the first French consulate Algeria in 1580.
France's keenness to establish diplomatic relations with Algeria stemmed from its deep desire to exploit its economic goods and to monopolize the coral investment, of which the Algerian coast was an important source.*
There was a military confrontation between France and Algeria during the reign of Louis XIV in the second half of the 17th century, when he sent the French fleet to Algeria to curb piracy in the Mediterranean and hit the city. With artillery three times and Algeria responded with a campaign on harbor of toulon and Nice When the power policy was not found, a peace treaty was signed with the governor of Algeria in 1689 and 29 million francs were paid to Algeria.
With the beginning of the french revolution of 1789 led by Napoleon Bonaparte, France experienced violent periods of political unrest and suffered from a European crisis.
After the bankruptcy of the French treasury and suffering with famine, and as a way out of this crisis, France has to reconsider its relations with the Ottoman state in general, and with the Dey of Algeria in particular after previous differences, and in light of these difficult conditions experienced by the French people, algeria stood beside frensh a humanitarian position , and granted an interest-free loan of 250,000 francs and supplied France with shipments of grain and foodstuffs. Napoleon pursued a policy of appeasement with Algeria in urgent interest.
It should be recalled that the number of treaties between Algeria and France reached 70 treaties peace and trade treaties, which were signed in different years (1534, 1619, 1628, 1640, 1661, 1662, 1666, etc.). Most of these treaties serve the interests of France more than Algeria. Algeria's assistance to France varied between naval military aid, diplomatic aid to the French Revolution, and economic and financial aid to the revolution.
In the early 19th century European countries and the United States of America began to change their policies and relations with Algeria as these countries do not pay royalties to Algeria, with the entry of European countries the stage of modern industrial revolution, especially not keeping pace with the Algerian industry for this development.
Where Europeans allied against Algeria at Vienna Conference, which was held on 9 June 1815 at the request of the English and to put an end to the acts of piracy Algerian maritime in Mediterranean and commissioned Britain to implement decisions of the Conference, was the first moves against Algeria at that time english Lord In 1816 aboard a naval fleet to Algeria and a deception, as he approached the coast of British consulate in the prison, but the Algerian Navy was deceived by the white flag that was carried by british warships, leaving it to enter the Algerian port, Guenbelt artillery naval fleet Algerian and caused severe damage than parents Omar Pasha was forced to accept the terms of Vienna Conference.
One of the specific conditions was the demilitarization of the Mediterranean Sea and recognition of England's priority in dealing with foreign consulates in Algeria.
French occupation of Algeria is due to the French ambitions to control a country full of natural revolutions, along with the historical hostility of the Ottomans who controlled Algeria in the Ottoman Empire. There are also religious dimensions since the Andalusian era.
The french occupation of algeria went through two main phases, first phase was the naval blockade of algeria, which lasted for almost three years from 1827 to 1830. French forces besieged algerian fleets and prevented them from sailing.
Battle of navarino on October 20 1827, with the great defeat of the ottoman and algerian fleet, had a profound historical impact. It was the beginning of the maritime collapse of ottoman empire and thus ended algerian domination of the Mediterranean the fall of Algeria in 1830 under french colonialism.
French leaders tried to justify their colonial ambitions regarding the occupation and those justifications:
The Dey hussein pasha destroyed the fortresses of the French fishing establishments on the eastern coast of Algeria.
End French monopoly on coral fishing and give freedom to all nations.
The Dey hussein refused to give answers to the seizure of Algerian fleet of the French ship at the port of Annaba.
The seizure of the French ships by the Algerian fleet, in violation of a truce treaty with France in 1826, 1827.
The reasons for the occupation can be summarized as follows:
Fly Whisk Incident in 29 avril 1827
The direct cause of France's motivation is fly whisk Incident, which summarized that Dey Hussein held a concert on April 29, 1827 to receive delegations to the foreign consuls accredited to Algeria on the occasion of Eid al-Adha, received consul of France -Pierre Deval- and asked why France delayed payment of debts to Algeria, Consul of France Deval was rude. Dey hussein pointed to the fan that was in his hand and ordered him out.
In his report, Deval claimed to his government that he had been beaten three times and that the Dai had said that he had beaten him because he insulted him. According to another account, the beatings did not occur at all, but the threat of beatings.
Algeria has been a direct target for a long time by European colonial powers. It has tried repeatedly but has not succeeded. France has exploited a range of international conditions and Europe's desire to break the power of Algeria, which was threatening its interests in the Mediterranean basin to prepare a military campaign against Algeria. Among the reasons we mention:
The economic wealth of Algeria was tempting all the countries of the region at the time. This factor played a strong role in France's conquest of Algeria. This is evident in the study published in July 1797 by Mr. Talieran entitled " As a result of the creation of new colonies in the present circumstances. " And it can summarize France's economic background in its occupation of Algeria, as follows:
- Since the establishment of the French-African property company, and after the advent of British ambitions in Algeria through the Exmot campaign in 1816, Bhutan commissioned by Napoleon 1808 to prepare a detailed plan for the invasion of Algeria.
- Since its diplomatic relations with Algeria, it has benefited from the country's economic resources. It had succeeded in the past due to its friendly relations with the Ottoman Empire in establishing the first French company for the investment of coral "Lanch" in 1561, provided that the center was not armed on the coasts. France has also set up commercial establishments in Algeria, and some of its citizens from the city of Marseille have sought to set up centers on the coast of Algeria to fish and stock their boats.
- Elimination and evasion of the payment of its outstanding debts to Algeria, which in 1819 estimated 7 million francs.
- The aggravation of France's problems on the European continent and its defeat by the Allied European countries in the battle of Waterloo in 1814, but the royal family of the Bourbon, which took over France after the Vienna Conference in 1815, revived the project of occupation in the framework of its political ambitions under the reign of King Charles X,
The internal political situation in France worsened after Charles X took office in 1824 and the internal conflict in France between the royal family, which was designed to punish the individuals who dealt with the revolutionary rule and put an end to its privileges among the opposition of the new revolutionary generation that created internal difficulties for the French king Charles X himself confronted the new members of parliament with revolutionaries on the royal family.
- The Charles X government sought to distract French public opinion from France's internal problems with a foreign cause.
- Encouraging big powers such as Britain and Austria Charles X to carry out campaigns against Algeria, since the interests of these countries were to keep France out of Europe.
After the Napoleonic wars, France began to seek compensation for the lost colonies and centers in North America, India and West Africa (Senegal) following the Seven Years War (1756-1763) against Britain, as well as some territories in Europe.
- Charles X's colonial strategy and his desire to establish cooperation with Russia in the Mediterranean basin to eliminate the British hegemony, and to concentrate in the port of Algiers.
- The conflict between the European Christian countries and the Ottoman Islamic state has been reflected in Algeria, especially after the great cooperation between the two countries to protect Muslims and defend Islam, which prompted Christian countries in Europe to cooperate with each other to strike Muslims in Algeria.
The Crusades and the Vienna and Aix-La-Chapelle conferences were the place where the Christian countries met and decided to destroy the dominant fleet in the region.
- Reviving Christianity in Africa by evangelizing Algeria, a fact confirmed by the statements and reports of political and religious leaders of France on the eve of the invasion. War Minister Clermont Toner, in a report to the Government on 14 October 1827, said: "In the future we can be happy and we We are making the Algerians, to make them Christians, so that we can achieve a victory that the divine providence seems to be preparing for us. " In this context we find King Charles X's statement on March 2, 1830, that "the work I will do to appease French honor will be with the help of the Almighty for the benefit of all Christianity." And other statements confirming the religious background of France's occupation of Algeria.