It finally is time to test all the hard work made the last year mastering Mandarin Chinese! There is a little more than one month left for my proficiency test. Thus I will start posting my daily progress reviewing the vocabulary and key grammatical features that I have to master for July 13th challenge.
The learning material of this series can be found in the HSK4 textbook (汉语水平考试四级课本)。
Unit 1 & 2 of 20
- Nouns: 法律，印象，性格，生活，缺点，爱情，星星，原因，脾气，平时，短信，聚会，友谊，周围，镜子
- Verbs: 熟悉，开玩笑，适合，够，接受，羡慕，加班，亮，感动，吸引，适应，交，逛，联系，毕业，麻烦，丰富，交流，理解，困难，陪
- Adjectives: 深，共同，幸福，浪漫，幽默，真正，无聊，讨厌
- Adverbs: 从来，最好，刚，自然，互相，正好，差不多，专门，好像，重新，却，及时
- Conjunctions: 不仅，即使，尽管，而
- Preposition: 当
- Classifier: 俩
The conjunction 不仅 is used in the first clause of a sentence, often followed by 而/还/而且 in the second clause, indicating a further meaning in addition to what has been said in the first clause. 不仅 is written after the subject if the two clauses share the same subject and are written before the subject when the first and second clause has different subjects.
The adverb 从来 indicates that something has remained unaltered from the initial point to the present, it is often used in negative sentences.
The adverb 刚 indicates that an action took place not long ago, it is used after the subject and before the verb.
There is a similar structure (刚才) and it is necessary to emphasize their similarities and differences: 刚 can only be used after the subject and before the verb since it is an adverb; 刚才 is a temporal noun and it can be placed either before or after the subject. 刚 can be preceded by a temporal noun or can be followed by a word of duration; 刚才 cannot. 刚 cannot be used alongside with a negative word while 刚才 can.
The conjunction 即使 is used in the first clause of a sentence coordinating with 也 in the second clause. It indicates a hypothetical concession or something that has already happened or been in existence.
The noun locality 上 is used after another noun to indicate "the surface of an object" or "within a certain scope regarding certain aspect".
正好 can be used as an adjective to mean "just right", indicating a certain condition (in terms of location, time, position, size, quantity or degree) is met.
正好 can also be used as an adverb to mean that "it is the right time or opportunity to do something".
差不多 can be used as an adjective to mean "approximate" and "without much difference".
差不多 can also be used as an adverb to indicate being close in terms of degree, scope, time, distance or quantity.
There is another similar structure (几乎), let's see their differences: 差不多 can be used right before a monosyllabic adjective, while before or after 几乎 there must be other words. 差不多 can proceed numeral-classifier compound to express proximity to a quantity, 几乎 has not such usage. 差不多 can also be used as an adjective to serve as the predicate, in such a case it indicates being similar and without much difference. 几乎 can is often used when something undesirable almost happened, yet finally it didn't; 差不多 cannot be used in this way.
The conjunction 尽管 is often used in the first clause of a sentence to state a fact, then it is usually preceded by one of the following coordinating words 但是，可是，却，还是 in the second clause which introduce a result that won't occur under normal circumstances.
The adverb 却 is often used to indicacte a transition in meaning in a softer tone.
The conjuction 而 can be used to connect two coordinating clauses. It can also be used to indicate an adversative relation.