Plant grow well in optimum water conditions,temperature and soil components as well as grow under abnormal conditions. They show different morphological and anatomical modifications to adjust themselves in varied conditions of the environment. These modifications makes the plant able to survive and reproduce within the limits of a particular environment. The modified features which help plant to exist in different conditions in which they grow is called plant adaptation . In other word ,adaptation can be defined as the structural and physiological adjustment made by living organism to survive successfully in particular habitats and to cope in their environment. Plant are divided into different groups on the basis of the ability of plants to grow in varied environment conditions like water supply,water requirements,rate of transpiration,nature of soil components etc , . They are mesophytes , hydrophytes and xerophytes .
Those plant growing well in optimum conditions of water ,temperatures and soil are called mesophytes. However many plants have adapted themselves to grow under abnormal conditions . Those plants growing in or on the water are called hydrophytes whereas some other plants prefer to grow in the scarcity of water in the soil i.e, dry and sandy soil are called xerophytes .