MENDEL LAW OF INHERITANCE
The branch of biological science which deals with the study of heredity and variations is known as genetics . The term genetics was first coined by William Bateson in 1906 . According to him, " genetics is the elucidation of the phenomenon of heredity and variations ."
The scientific study in genetics was started with the time of Gregor johann Mendel (1822-1884), an Austrian monk . He formulated the basic laws of genetics with the help of his experiment on common garden pea . He is considered as the pioneer in the field of genetics and appropriately called FATHER OF GENETICS . His conclusion constitutes the foundation of MODERN GENETICS .
Selection of Materials: Mendel selected garden pea plant as a best material for his hybridization experiments , because :
- Its life cycle is comparatively short.
- Construction of flower is suitable for self pollination.
- In this case self pollination can easily prevented by removing the stamens from the flower buds .
- Its many distinct varieties were available between which crosses could be made and analyzed .
Mendel studied seven characteristics of pea plants, each of which occurred in two contrasting traits such as :
a. Seed texture - round and wrinkled
b. Seed color - yellow and green
c. Seed coat color - grey and white
d. Pod appearance- inflated and constricted
e. Pod color - green and yellow
f. Position of flowers - axial and terminal
g.Stem length -tall and dwarf
Reasons For Mendel Success
- Mendel at first prepared genetically pure variety for a single character to get the exact results in the breeding .
- He studied the inheritance of one character at a time .
- Great care was taken in carrying out all experiments,eliminating the chances of cross polls nation wherever required.
- Sufficient data were collected and analyzed carefully .
- He carried out experiments to F2 and F3 generation only .