CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGRICULTURE
Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weathers patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years .
Climate change and agriculture are interrelated process , both of which take place on a global scale . Climate change affect agriculture in number of ways including through changes in average temperature , rainfall,and climate extremes ( e.g, heat waves ), changes in pests and diseases, change in atmospheric carbon dioxide and ground level ozone concentration , changes in nutritional quality of some foods , and changes in sea level .
Climate change is already affecting agriculture with effects unevenly distributed across the world . Future climate changes will likely negatively affect crop production in low latitude countries , who.e effects in northern latitude may be positive or negative.
Despite technological advances such as improved varieties , genetically modified organisms and irrigation systems , climate is still a key factor in agriculture productivity as well as soil properties and natural communities . Climate change coy,d have an effects in both agriculture and forestry , changing the condition for crop and plant growth and in urn food supply increasing the pressure on soil and water availability as well as farming methods with a reliance on fertilizer or other chemical products .
The effect of climate change on o,ant over different European bio climatic regions are expected to be multiple and complex , but rising co2 concentration , high temperature and changes in precipitation , flooding , drought duration and frequency will all have significant effects on plant growth .
Impact of climate change on agriculture
- Temperature increases beyond a threshold can affect key development stages of some crops such as spikelet sterility in rice ,loss of pollen viability in maize , tubers development in potatoes . 2. Yield losses can be severe if temperature increases beyond critical limits for even shorter periods .
- Increased flood , landslide ,mudslide events and damages
- New and wide spread diseases because of warm climates
- More wild fires
- Cereal productivity to be decreased by 10%-40% by the year 2100.
- Increasing temperature would increase fertilizer requirements for same production targets .
Summing up ,climate change will probably increases the risk of food insecurity in future .so we should be concern towards this issue .