Space suit . Spacesuit structure and functions of different parts.

in science •  last year

From the beginning of the human space journey to the other essentials which are being an integral part, the use of astronauts, which is commonly known as 'Spacesuit' Except for this special dress, humans can not survive in adverse and harsh environments of space.

                        Space Suit / EMU / Extravehicular Mobility Unit

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What is Spacesuit?

In the practical language, it is not only a spell or a set of clothes, but it is called "one-man spacecraft". Spacer's official name is 'Extravehicular Mobility Unit', short-term EMU. A fully-prepared and equipped device equipped with spacesuit can fly out of the spacecraft and get into space. He can also work out the errata repair outside the space station. Specussure is also necessary for new planet landing.

Generally speaking, Specussure or EMU is a special arrangement consisting of a combination of special protective clothing and equipment, which guarantees the existence of the astronauts safely in the inner and outer environment of the space station, to move and survive in comfort.

Spacesuit or EMU is the name of the entire management of the overall safety and living conditions of an astronaut.

Spacesuit requirements

The mountain climbers need to wear special clothes to survive on the top of the surface while adapting to the mountain. Astronauts have to stay in a much more risky, deadly, harmful and destructive environment than in the heavens. To live in that life-threatening environment requires special safety spaceships.

Uninterrupted supply of oxygen in the atmosphere of the air, external pressure control of the astronaut's body, temperature control, interactors and interacting with the planet (so as not to speak directly to airplanes), to prevent horrible radiation from space, from possible 'alien disease-germs' In order to protect the astronauts, the necessary measures are to be carried out in the spaceships, trails His work can be done safely astronaut safely.

Spacesuit structure and functions of different parts

It has been said that the spacer is not exactly 'a garment'. This is a complete security arrangement. The whole Spacesuit consists of several small and large sections. Let's know about the composition and effectiveness of the main components of Spacesuit.

First, let's see the inside of the outer shell of the spacesuit inside the internal clothing and the device.

Communication Carrier Assembly (CCA)

CCA is the full system of astronauts' sponsorship and original spacecraft and communication with the world

                          Communication Carrier Assembly (CCA)

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Inside the helmet, the astronaut has a capillary and nylon fabric cap on the head. Call it a communication cap. There is airphone, microphone and electric connection for voice communication.

This system enables the astronaut to keep all the necessary communications.

Liquid Cooling & Ventilation Garment (LCVG)

Spacesuit is very good heat resistance. Without the specific ventilation system, its inner heat can not come out, or the external heat can not penetrate. Therefore, it is important to have a system to get out of the heat produced by the astronauts. LCVG is the heat control system for the astronaut's body.

       Liquid Cooling & Ventilation Garment (LCVG)

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There is a special heat-controlling garment inside the outer lining of the spacetown. This dress is made of very thin but hollow and flexible tube. The underwear is to wear this dress. All of the clothes are under tube networking. The water flows through this tube, which removes the heat generated by the astronauts and puts the astronauts' body temperature in tolerable levels.

This garment also has a special air flow system in addition to water flow which works in ventilation. The water flow and ventilation system of this garment is connected to the control area of ​​'backpack', which maintains uninterrupted water and air flow.

Maximum Absorbency Garment (MAG)

It's called a special underwear of the astronauts. Under the LCVG it is like wearing underwear. It saves the astronauts' urine inside the Spacesuit and keeps them out in time.

       Maximum Absorbency Garment (MAG)

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In-suit Drink Bag (IDB)

A special supplemental water bag is attached to the inner lining of the bedside spacesuit. From there a pipe goes to the mouth of the astronaut. The astronaut can drink water from the bag with that pipe.

This is the life-saving costume and equipment in the spacesuit.

Now let's see the different parts of the solid lining outside the spacetown. This cover is mainly seen as a spacer.

Helmet & Extravehicular Visor Assembly

The top part of the spacer is a special helmet. This special closed helmet is attached to the original spacesuit while wearing the spacesuit.

              Helmet & Extravehicular Visor Assembly

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This mainly consists of two parts - Helmet Assembly and Extravehicular visor Assembly.

Helmet Assembly is a transparent helmet. Neck Ring is attached to the bottom of which the helmet is attached to the original spacesuit. This helmet made of special poly-carbonate material is attached to the outer layer Extravehicular visor Assembly. This assembly of solid lining protects the astronaut from external shock and direct bright sunlight and radiation. Outside the transparent helmets, the extra protection level of the Extravehicular Assembly works like two-way mirror. It reflects sunlight and radiation, but the astronauts just look outside.


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There is another completely opaque cover above this level. It prevents it from direct sunlight on the front of the astronaut.
These two protection levels are near the assembly's ear. It can be controlled by twin newly wings in the right and left. They can be covered with the need, if necessary, the entire transparent section can be kept open.

Hard Upper Torso with Arm Assembly (HUT)

                Hard Upper Torso with Arm Assembly (HUT)

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The part that looks like a 'vest' of a special fiber-made spacer is HUT. This part is made up of spissusa chest and part of hand. The display and control module (DCM) consist of the internal control of the control section, switch, etc. attached to its chest.

                         Display and Control Module (DCM)

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It is not possible to see the display of the space astronaut himself. So a wrist mirror spacer is attached to the hand part. Through the reflection, the astronauts control the DCM's display. LCVG, Water line, Air & Oxygen system, Vent system - These parts are controlled with DCM.

HUT has a life support system backpack. The upper neck ring of the HUT and the bottom of the helmet is strongly attached to the ring. Arm Assembly is connected to HUT The Arm Assembly and HUT are connected with special combination and bearings to maintain the control of the astronaut's handy hand. In this, the astronaut can handle his hands easily and be able to rotate the bottom part of the bearings.

The last part of the arm assembly is associated with gloves. Bearing and other management needed for the rotation of the astronaut's wrist are kept here, so that gloves can be easily added and the wrist can be switched.

Arm & Glove Assembly

                   Arm & Glove Assembly

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Glove Assembly is added to the end of the Arm Assembly It covers the astronaut's hand wrist, fingers and protects from the outside. Rotary bearings are used for wrinkle rotation in the wrist area. A hot pad attached to the assembly protects the astronaut's hand from excess heat and cold. There is also a 'finger tip heater' in the control of the astronauts, which controls the temperature of the fingers.

Lower Torso Assembly (LTA)

Under the HUT, the whole part of the spacesuit is called together LTA.

                    Lower Torso Assembly (LTA)

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With the help of the Body Seal Closer part, the spasic portion is connected to LTA and upper HUT interconnected. Besides, the astronauts can move around waist and foot properly due to the waist bearings of LAT and flexable parts of the feet. Finally the special boot is connected to it.

Portable Life Support System (PLSS)

In order to provide the necessary oxygen within the spacesuit and to prepare the atmosphere needed for the survival of the astronauts in space or vignette, there is a complete system in 'backpack', which is attached to the back of the HUT of the spacesuit. Overall this system is called PLSS.

                   Portable Life Support System (PLSS)

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EMU's PLSS Backpack is 26 "× 20.5" × 10.5 "in size. Weighing up to 104 pounds, including the entire equipment. 16.8 volts are powered by PLSS with the help of Silver-Zink Battery.

Five subsystems comprise PLSS

  1. Primary oxygen supply
  2. Oxygen ventilating circuit
  3. Water transport loop
  4. Feed water loop
  5. Space suit communication system

Control of each sub-system is connected to the DCM connected to HUT on a remote control unit (RCU). Through this, you can control the system of the astronomical systems.

Primary Oxygen Supply

17 "long and 6" diameter cylinders have about 1.5 pounds of oxygen gas at the 1380-1440 PSI pressure, which provides oxygen to the astronaut. From here the oxygen flows in the spacetown and the helmets and maintains the 3.9 PSI pressure, which creates a comfortable environment for the astronauts.

Water Transport Loop

The work of this part is to control the flow of water through the LCVG of the spacesuit. A battery powered pump flows through the LCVG tube network at 4 pounds per minute in cold water. Through this, the metabolic heat produced by the astronauts is removed, so that the body of the astronauts is cool. It is able to remove 1600-2000 Btu heat per hour.

Feed Water Loop

It is another part of thermal management. A total of 11.8 pounds of water is in the rubber bladder and reserves tank, which helps in maintaining thermal naturality from the spacesuit internal heat emission system.

Space suit communication system

The overall arrangement of interconnected communication between the astronauts and the world is connected to the PLSS. It is mainly a specialized radio signal transmission and receiving system.

Starting from the conversation of the astronauts, their physical condition, the effective management of the spatial interiors, the performance data, the performance data etc. are collected and sent to the spacecraft and the Earth Control Center through this communication system. Other important functions of voltage and current control of the oxygen supply, spacing of temperature, temperature and pressure, measuring parts and other sensors and electrical parts in the spacesuit are also important. These information is transmitted to ten different channels.

A part of the communication system warns the astronauts to take necessary measures, reaching the information of the DCM parts attached to the HUT of the spatula in any unstable condition of high oxygen supply, low pressure, cooling and ventilation system.

                          PLSS with OPS

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In addition to the above five core systems mentioned above, additional two backup systems are connected to PLSS. In order to protect the life of the astronaut in crisis due to mechanical disorder or environmental reasons, this extra arrangement is kept in two spacuses. Such as

  1. Oxygen Purge System (OPS)
  2. Buddy Secondary Life Support System (BSLSS)

Oxygen Purge System (OPS)

The backup oxygen delivery system is equipped with a protective weight of 35.1 pounds in size, smaller than 18 "x 10" × 8 "in size above PLSS. For emergency use, 5.7 pounds of oxygen is kept at 6950 psi pressure. A separate battery keeps the system running.

If the original PLSS does not work because of any accident or mechanical disorder, then the astronaut can activate this system with the help of a liver attached to its DCM part when the oxygen supply decreases at a critical rate, or if the internal pressure decreases. If this system is activated, it can last for 30 minutes. This system holds 30-minute spatial inserts 3.7 PSI and supplies 8.3 pounds per hour of oxygen. At the same time, this system keeps the air-breathing breathing easier, internal temperature control, carbon-dioxide extraction and helmet visor section clean and transparent.

If the system is operated with BSLSS, then it works in half its power and enables the astronaut to survive for about 75 minutes.

Buddy Secondary Life Support System (BSLSS)

For some reason, the astronaut's Body Temperature Cooling system does not work or if the problem arises, this special arrangement is to keep the cooling system running from the PLSS backpack of the airplane to the cooling water of the astronaut's backpack.

Cooling water, cooling system, flows through the cooling system of the fired astronauts, with another flexible 8.5-foot flexible pipes, moves the flow back through another flexible pipe so that the body temperature of the airplane is normal. In such a situation, the spaceships of the astronauts were attached with a 6-foot tall Shell, so that the BSLSS pipes could not be disconnected from the maximum amount of two. If needed, this process works as a support system of OPS, helping to increase the effective time limit of OPS from two to three times.

NASA has presented a brief description of the various parts of a web-aid spacesuit on their website.

Spacesuit or EMU is composed of such complex and fine devices . In spite of being able to fly outside the spacecraft , repairing the outer space of the spacecraft , and from regular maintenance to foot on another planet, there is no substitute for spaceship to save the astronauts in that environment.

References - NASA

  1. Space Suit eBook

  2. PLSS eBook

  3. Apollo Lunar Surface Journal

  4. Space Suit Web-app


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