Will CRISPR Transform Humanity? (ENGLISH/TURKISH)

in science •  10 months ago

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Today, our mobile phones have a capacity of about 10 times higher than the NASA computer, which allowed Neil Armstrong to step up the moon in 1969. In those years, no one predicted that computers could come into this much of our daily lives. Now we can hardly take steps without our mobile phones, and we take this situation very naturally.

Genetic engineering is probably in the process of developing computers in the 60s and 70s, and technologies in this field have not yet been incorporated into our daily lives.

Our ancestors, made their first genetic practices by applying natural selection on animals and plants with the agricultural revolution. According to a theory, dogs evolved through the selection and feeding of calm and well-mannered wolves. It is not true to think that sheeps are so pliant animals since the time of their ancestors, especially those who are pliant have been chosen and maintained by our ancestors. The same is true for the watermelons, corns, strawberries that we eat today, the larger and more delicious ones have been selected for generations and they reached their present form.

Evolution is an excellent mechanism, but it has a problem: it works very slowly. Another problem faced by people dealing with genetics is that living organisms are extremely complex. No matter how complex a system is, it can be divided into subcomponents that are less complex. Decoding DNA was a big step forward in understanding how living things work. In 2001, the first DNA map of a human being cost $ 100 million. Nowadays, the gene mapping cost of an individual is around $ 1100.

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Human gene mapping, has created a great hope for the fight against diseases. The results of studies in the field of genetics seem to be far from meeting these expectations. However, this situation may change recently.

The next step to identify the genes and figure out what each one doing is to change them. This process was first introduced in 2011 thanks to CRISPR technology, which can be executed in days rather than years. Experts say that genetic regulations are facilitated by 90% in this way. CRISPR (Cluster Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeat), is facilitating genome regulation in molecular biology/genetic engineering studies.

CRISPR is a DNA archive at its core. It has been developed by bacteria against viruses that are their main enemies. The viruses penetrate the outer surface of the bacteria and release their DNA. So they take over the bacteria cell and use it as a factory to produce viruses like themselves. This method does not always work, some bacteria are able to get rid of these virus attacks. The surviving bacteria take the copy of their DNA and put it in their archives. This archive is called CRISPR.

Once again, when the same virus attacks the bacterium, it pierces the outer surface of the bacterium and leaves its DNA inside. A protein called CAS9 compares every piece of the archive to the newly arrived DNA. When it detects the match, it cuts the DNA of the virus and the attack fails. You can follow the following video with real images of how the CAS9 protein works.

CRISPR is a method that can be used in any kind of living organizm. When this method was used in experiments, it was observed that the HIV virus disappeared in 50% of the mice. Although the success rate is still low in humans, it is hoped that progress will be achieved over time.

CRISPR is also intended to be used in the treatment of cancer. In China, studies have been initiated for the use of the method in the treatment of lung, stomach, lymph, breast and cervix cancers.

Humanity is fighting over 3000 hereditary diseases today. This technique promises hope for a definitive solution to hereditary diseases. The method was allowed to be used to prevent certain inherited diseases in the United States in February 2017. Again in 2017, the method was used in a human embryo for the first time to prevent an inherited heart disease.

Gene therapy on adult individuals is limited to that individual. However, interventions in the embryo stage have the potential to affect the human gene pool.

While certain diseases in humans are related to one gene, most diseases occur under the influence of more than one gene. The treatment of diseases caused by a single gene is relatively easy to identify and treat, but the treatment of diseases caused by the interaction of multiple genes is more difficult.

CRISPR can also be used to provide desirable features to subsequent generations beyond treatment. Eye color and gender, for example, can be modified with today's technology at embryo stage. While more than one gene is effective on features such as height and intelligence, it is not yet possible to make a modification in this direction effectively. The method can also be used for purposes such as slowing aging and improving the immune system.

Is it right to play with babies' genetics? Is it appropriate to intervene in the human genome, which has been optimized for 3,8 billion years, using a method that has not yet reached 10 years of history? What if we encounter unexpected consequences?

I recently watched a documentary on the subject at Netflix. It was mentioned that the dwarfism would be history by the CRISPR method. While the dwarf parents were happy that their children would not be like themselves, they were concerned about the disappearance of dwarves from the world.

The nature of babies to be born, or the possibility of emergence of some diseases was largely due to the factor of chance, while the poor were at least subject to the same conditions as the rich. New technologies raise concerns about the gap between the rich and the poor. Will the enormous diversity seen in humans disappear? What if this technology comes into malicious hands and used to create a superior race or to design super soldiers?

There are a lot of concerns about the subject. Nevertheless, the advantages of the method seem to be pressing heavily.

CAS9 is such a useful protein that it allows us to upload videos to the DNA. As shown in the image below, the loaded image can be red over DNA with accuracy of over 90%.

We're entering a strange period where we begin to shape our own biology, Hopefully everything will go well.

Thanks for reading.

Image Sources: https://pixabay.com and https://giphy.com/

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CRISPR İnsanlığı Dönüştürecek Mi?

Bugün cep telefonlarımız 1969 yılında aya ayak basılmasını sağlayan NASA bilgisayarından yaklaşık 10 kat daha yüksek kapasiteye sahip. O yıllarda bilgisayarların gelecekte günlük hayatımızın bu denli içine girebileceğini hiç kimse tahmin etmiyordu. Şimdilerde bilgisayarlar olmadan neredeyse adım atamaz hale geldik ve bu durumu çok doğal karşılıyoruz.

Genetik mühendisliği galiba bilgisayarların 60'lı ve 70'li yıllarda içinde bulunduğu gelişmişlik aşamasında bulunuyor, henüz bu alandaki teknolojiler günlük hayatlarımıza dahil olmuş değil.

Tarım devrimiyle birlikte yerleşik hayata geçen atalarımız hayvanlar ve bitkiler üzerinde doğal seçilim uygulayarak ilk genetik uygulamalarını yapmış oldular. Bir teoriye göre köpekler sakin ve iyi huylu kurtların seçilip beslenmesi yoluyla evrimleşmiş. Koyunların ezelden beri bu denli uysal hayvanlar olduğunu düşünmemek gerekiyor, uysal olanlar özellikle seçilip soyların sürdürmeleri sağlanmış. Bugün yediğimiz karpuzlar, mısırlar, çilekler için de aynı durum geçerli, nesiller boyunca daha iri ve lezzetli olanları seçilerek bugünkü formlarına ulaşmışlar.

Evrim mükemmel bir mekanizma ancak bir sorunu var: Çok yavaş işliyor. Genetik işi ile uğraşan insanların karşılaştığı bir diğer sorun canlı organizmaların olağanüstü derece karmaşık olmaları. Bir sistem ne kadar karmaşık olursa olsun, daha az karmaşık olan alt bileşenlere ayrılabilir. DNA kodunun çözülmesi canlıların nasıl işlediğini anlamak yolunda büyük bir adım oldu. 2001 yılında bir insana ait ilk DNA haritasının çıkarılması 100 milyon dolara mal oldu. Bugünlerde 1100 USD civarı bir maliyetle gen haritası çıkarılabilir duruma geldi.

İnsanın gen haritasının çıkarılması zamanında hastalıklarla mücadele konusunda büyük bir umut yaratmıştı. Genetik alanında yapılan çalışmalardan elde edilen sonuçlar henüz bu beklentileri karşılamaktan uzak görünüyor. Ancak bu durum yakın zamanda değişebilir.

Genleri tanımlamak ve her birinin ne işe yaradığını anlamaktan sonraki adım onları değiştirmek oluyor. Bu işlem ilk kez 2011 yılında gündeme gelen CRISPR teknolojisi sayesinde yıllar yerine günler içinde yapılır hale geldi. Konunun uzmanları genetik düzenlemelerin bu yolla %90 oranında kolaylaştığını ifade ediyorlar. Moleküler biyoloji/genetik mühendisliği çalışmalarında genom düzenlenmesini kolaylaştıran CRISPR Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sözcüklerinin ilk harflerini ifade ediyor. (Türkçesi: Düzenli Aralıklarla Bölünmüş Kısa Palindromik Tekrar Kümeleri)

CRISPR özünde bir DNA arşividir. Bakteriler tarafından baş düşmanları olan virüslere karşı geliştirilmiştir. Virüsler bakterilerin dış cephesini delerek içeriye kendi DNA'sını bırakıyorlar. Bu sayede bakteri hücresini ele geçirip onu kendisi gibi virüsleri üretmek için bir fabrika niyetine kullanıyorlar. Bu yöntem her zaman işe yaramıyor, bazı bakteriler bu virüs saldırılarından kurtulmayı başarabiliyorlar. Kurtulan bakteriler DNA'sını alarak arşivine koyuyor. Bu arşiv CRISPR olarak isimlendiriliyor.

Aynı virüs bakteriye bir kez daha saldırdığında yine bakterinin dış cephesini deliyor ve içeriye DNA'sını bırakıyor. CAS9 adındaki bir protein arşivdeki her parçayı yeni gelen DNA ile karşılaştırıyor. Eşleşmeyi tespit ettiği anda virüsün DNA'sını kesiyor ve saldırıyı başarısız kılıyor.

CRISPR her türlü canlıda kullanılabilen bir yöntem. Yapılan deneylerde bu yöntem kullanıldığında denek farelerin %50'sinde HIV virüsünin ortadan kalktığı görüldü. İnsanlarda başarı oranı henüz düşük seviyede olsa da zamanla gelişme kaydedilmesi umuluyor.

CRIPR tekniğinin kanser tedavisinde kullanılması da amaçlanıyor. Çin'de yöntemin akçiğer, mide, lenf, meme ve rahim ağzı kanserlerinin tedavisinde yöntemin kullanılması için çalışmalar başlatılmış durumda.

İnsanlık bugün 3000'in üzerinde kalıtımsal hastalıkla mücadele ediyor. Bu teknik kalıtımsal hastalıklara kesin bir çözüm bulunması yönünde umut vaat ediyor. Şubat 2017'de ABD'de yöntemin bazı kalıtsal hastalıkların önlemesinde kullanılması izin verildi. Yine 2017'de yöntem kalıtsal bir kalp hastalığını önlemek üzere ilk kez bir insan embriyosunda kullanıldı.

Yetişkin bireyler üzerinde yapılan gen terapileri o bireyle sınırlı kalıyor. Oysa embriyo aşamasında yapılan müdahaleler insanlığın gen havuzunu etkileme potansiyeli barındırıyor.

İnsandaki belirli hastalıklar tek genle ilgiliyken, çoğu hastalık birden fazla genin etkisiyle oluşuyor. Tek bir genin neden olduğu hastalıkların tanımlanması ve tedavisi görece kolayken birden fazla genin etkileşimiyle oluşan hastalıkların tedavisi daha zor.

CRISPR tedavinin ötesinde sonraki nesillere arzu edilen özellikler kazandırmak için de kullanılabilir. Göz rengi ve cinsiyet örneğin embriyo aşamasında bugünün teknolojisiyle modifiye edilebiliyor. Boy ve zeka gibi diğer özellikler üzerinde ise birden fazla gen etkili olduğundan bu yönde bir modifikasyon yapmak henüz mümkün değil. Yöntemin yaşlanmayı yavaşlatmak, bağışıklık sistemini geliştirmek gibi amaçlarla da kullanılabileceği düşünülüyor.

Bebeklerin genetiği ile oynamak doğru bir davranış mı? Geçmişi henüz 10 yılı bile bulmayan bir yöntemi kullanarak 3,8 milyar yılda optimize olmuş insan genomuna müdahale etmek ne kadar doğru? Ya beklenmedik kötü sonuçlarla karşılaşırsak?

Geçenlerde Netflix'de konuyla ilgili bir belgesel seyrettim. Cüceliğin CRISPR yöntemi sayesinde tarih olacağından söz ediliyordu. Cüce anne babalar bir yandan çocuklarının kendileri gibi olmayacağına sevinirken bir yandan da cüceliğin dünyadan silinmesinden endişe ediyorlardı.

Doğacak bebeklerinin niteliği ya da bazı hastalıkların ortaya çıkma olasılığı büyük ölçüde şans faktörüne bağlıyken yoksullar en azından bu konuda zenginlerle aynı koşullara tabiydi. Bu gibi teknolojiler zenginlerle fakirler arasındaki uçurumun açılması endişesini doğruyor. Mükemmel olmayan insanlar ne olacak? İnsanlarında görülen muazzam çeşitlilik bu yüzden yok mu olacak? Bu teknoloji kötü niyetli ellere geçerse ve üstün bir ırk yaratmak ya da süper askerler tasarlamak üzere kullanırlarsa? İster istemez insanın aklına GATTACA filmi geliyor.

Konu hakkındaki sorular ve kaygılar oldukça fazla. Yine de yöntemin sağladığı avantajlar ağır basıyor gibi görünüyor.

CAS9 öylesine kullanışlı bir protein ki onun sayesinde DNA'ya video yüklenmesi sağlandı. Aşağıdaki görüntüde görüldüğü üzere görüntü %90'ın üzerinde bir doğrulukla DNA üzerinden okunabiliyor.

Kendi biyolojimizi şekillendirmeye başlayacağımız tuhaf bir döneme giriyoruz, umarım her şey yolunda gider.

Okuduğunuz için teşekkür ederim.

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Yes well done ..
Success is to take advantage of your chances in life,
Regardless of the result
Thank you for sharing your words..

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It is completely astonishing thinking what technological capacities we have in our hands daily. we may not be aware of it. But when you read about it in a different view. You say, there it is!
Thank you very much for sharing it with us.

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Very interesting article, gene mapping wow

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Excellent article to explain this groudbreaking technic of gene therapy :) I came across the CRISPR potiential thanks to an amazing RADIOLAB podcast one year ago, and I can't recommend it enough to anyone even remotely interested in the subject, because it's very well explained. Here it is: https://www.wnycstudios.org/story/update-crispr

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was that the one where the kids were talking about editing genes so that their cultures would smell like mint instead of shit and then smell like bananas when they were ready?

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that's not the way to get followers

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The benefits you have mentioned about the scientific method of CRISPR in your article is really incredable because it will somehow enhance our lifetime to some extent and also in the treatment of certain incurable diseases...
As a lot research is going out in this regard i hope it will come as bsnefit to humanity in every field..
Thanks for sharing

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The future of the technology is just so bright for humanity

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Is it really happens, thats a great thing for our life period to enhance. Nice explanation...

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CRISPR allows genetic editing scientists to be made models of cell and animal instants, which researchers can use to get faster research in such cases such as cancer and mental illness. In addition, CRISPR is now being matured as a fast affection. To help promote this kind of research around the world.

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Great post sir.Much obliged for sharing it

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Excellent article to explain,I think, the mankind dont have other chance to survive, It essentially gives us the power of God.

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thanks for sharing this wonderful information about CRISPR hope to see more of your post have bright content like this
for the mean time check on this post of mine and support support see my view of life.

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You got a 22.95% upvote from @upmewhale courtesy of @muratkbesiroglu!

Earn 100% earning payout by delegating SP to @upmewhale. Visit http://www.upmewhale.com for details!

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Şimdiki teknolojilerden yararlandığım için mutluyum.Fakat bundan 100 yıl sonrasının teknolojileri göremeyeceğim için üzülüyorum.

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buena publicación gracias por esta informacion Ademas creo que tu articulo muy interesante el la forma en que explicas el estudio sobre el método científic de CRISPR es interesante el la forma en que vamos mejorando a medida que pasa el tiempo sigue asi me gusto tu posts

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oh yes it will, some idiot will get one, and create a new virus that will ravage humanity, if not other species as well, they should be regulated

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Yes, I agree. It should be regulated.

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You have described in detail about CRISPR. thanks for sharing.

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The Netflix documentary and episode the OP is referring to in this post is called 'Explained: Designer DNA'

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HELLO THERE!!!
NICE POST IT IS AWESOME HOW TECHNOLOGY HAS GREW UP A LOT.

THANKS FOR SHARING YOUR KNOWLEDGE.

GOOD LUCK!!!!

HAVE A GREAT DAY!!!

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CRISPER IS THE FUTURE.
Imagine the possibilities! .Recently scientists have claimed that in the near future they could recreate an animal similar to dinosaurs. In future from genetically enhanced humans to mosquitoes that won't act as vectors. SIMPLY MIND BLOWING! !!!!!

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Interesting article. It remains a question that human can still evolve without that much natural selection as they used to have.

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Can you more specify it?
It means I want to know about in more detail.
Thanks for sharing this amazing knowledgeanimal-diving-reptile.jpg

the intelligence is in not letting go of every opportunity that comes your way! very well!

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IMO, I think CRISPR will have something to do with the mark of the beast talked about in the Bible.

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@muratkbesiroglu Who is best Einstien or Newton??

Benefits are good........... if possible

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You got a 26.80% upvote from @postpromoter courtesy of @muratkbesiroglu!

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That may be a great news for us , but future may hide manythings , great and informative topic....

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Definitely if it is with good intention

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Thank you very much for your post, it is very interesting!

Hastalıkların tedavisi bağlamında söyleyecek söz yok elbette ama diğer konularda örneğin boy uzunluğu saç göz ten rengi gibi konularda egemen "güzellik" tercihlerine hizmet edecekse yeni tasarım, bu dünyanın "Storm Trooper" 'larını nasıl açıklayacağız?

Felsefik tartışması hiç yapılmayan ama eze eze ilerleyen bir konu daha...

Teknoloji neylerse güzel eyler diyemiyorum ben, biraz soluklansak sanki daha iyi olacak...
Açgözlülük ve zalimlik genlerini bulup yok edip çalışmalara öyle devam edilebilir belki de...

Paylaşımınız her zamanki gibi çok ilgi çekici, teşekkürler

excellent information..thank you for it

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Excellent article about evolution and genetic engineering

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Excellent writing, informative one

wow nice your post. I learned a lot in your post

Good friend publication! Congratulations!

Merhabalar, uzun süredir blog sayfanızı takip ediyorum yazılarınızı kaçırmadan guest olarak okuyordum ve en sonunda üyeliğim ile sizi takip etmeyi sonunda gerçekleştirdim. Biraz uzun bir bekleyiş benim için ama bu platform da ender rastlanan yerinde, sağlıklı içeriklere sahip kişilerdensiniz. Saygı ve sevgilerimle :)

Good history, what a title about film?

To listen to the audio version of this article click on the play image.

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good and knowledge articale

Thanks for sharing this with us .... Really agreeing with this post .... Like it

Very usefull article..... great blog

it is very huge thing in field of biology....lower cost more the information......n i hope they achieve the cure of hiv

Muy interesante

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Thanks to the technology, the human race has a huge potential to survive longer. I hope the humanity survives too.

the best worthfull post.

Yes, absolutely. It wont be long until we are creating designer humans in the same way that we are breeding plants and animals

NICE POST. IT IS REALLY HELPFUL

Love to read.. Thanks for Sharing !!!

Woooow what did i just read :O

That's a lot of helpful information

thanks @muratkbesiroglu for this

I like the fact that perhaps we may find a cure for cancer. Even though, I believe the cure already exists, but the government doesn't want the cure to be revealed because of the economical impact it would have on our economy.

I especially liked learning about the evolution of watermellons and other vegetables. Since Im an organic gardener, I've always wondered if I should buy organic seeds or just save the seeds from a watermellon and replant them. What do you think about organic seeds vs non-organic seeds affecting our health? Thanks for the informative post. I enjoyed reading it.

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I don't have deep information about the topic but I am not very much concerned about non-organic foods.

We're entering a strange period where we begin to shape our own biology, Hopefully everything will go well.

Hopefully, just hopefully...
We don't bring our own extinction close.
With such tech everyone can have same skin color. Same eyes . Everybody may want to be like a beyonce . And soon. We'd all be lost trying to be things we are not. 😑😑

güzel yazı olmuş teşekkür ederim.

Informative, factually correct and quite fascinating.

Thanks for sharing the knowledge with as we are glade to know about this technology in our hand

CRISPR the future of medical science, hope it will cure AIDS & Cancer, the world may become painless.

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I hope so👍

A very nice post. I enjoyed reading your post much. And from this post I learned a lot that was very important for me. And I always come to this kind of post. Thank you very much. I can be very beneficial to get such a good post from you. I just do not. I have done all the benefits. Because this post is a good post. So thank you very much. We will get such helpful post in the next post.

gene mapping will be the future for human race . i feel strongly that by modifying human gene will help body to fight with diseases and strength can be increased

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I think so🤓

The CRISPR CAS 9 is one of the greatest tools of modern genetic engineering. Thought the development has begun a few times back, but progress has been made to use this technology to reverse some of the deadly inherent diseases. Genome sequencing in culmination with CRISPR has a great future ahead to serve mankind.

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I agree with you🤠

Actually even we humans have no idea about what we are actually capable of doing . Life is unpredictable and so is future. But this is for sure that things will happen much more fast and better in ways we can even imagine of.

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definitely it's the future and things gonna change very fast.
but playing with the nature is a dangerous thing.

I want to,
I give you 1,000 votes, But in stemthis system did not keep it.
This is not because I can not give it.

the industry is too young and need time to develop even in years. Theres already cheap version of CRISPR prototypes available circulating on the web and many startups have been actively trying to commercialize these kinda gene editing hack tools to the public. Ascendance Biomedical is one example. Aaron Traywick, the CEO and founder was one of the pioneer evangalist on these kinda gene therapy to the world, and guess what, he took the risk ahead of time by apparently making himself a lab rat to experiment on these kinda hacks and end up found dead under unexplained circumstances. These things takes time really

I don't think so.

Technology is really redefining every "impossible ".

Great post!

Sir, I want to know when and how the evolution of genetic engineering takes place so rapidly??

@muratkbesiroglu can really CRISPR transform reality in real it is needed and valuable for the mankind ????

You write a nice topic for humanity but why to improve for humanity in the world. Because is very important for grow humility in the world.

wow,
Then you share fore asom information please share this type contant

Wow, super interesting. Thank you for sharing. What is the documentary on netflix called?

this is breakhrough in genetic engineering

PC.jpgThis is a valuable article with serious questions. The lives of today's humans are very conditioned by various components. I site as an example: the conditions and pace of life, the technological means, the food industry and the list is long. If our ancestors worked to improve their standard of living and tend towards abundance, the evolution was not always without damage.
The watermelons, corns, strawberries that we eat today, the largest and the most delicious have been selected for generations and have reached their current form but the health effects of agricultural practices are harmful. If human genetic mapping has created great hope for the fight against diseases. These diseases are caused largely by the genetic transformations of food.
Human evolution is in a vicious circle. From one determined state we move to another of better appearance but at bottom it brings a structural change against the happiness of the human.
Changing the color of the eyes and sex, for example, only satisfies the wishes of the parents, but the baby concerned, the Man of tomorrow has chosen his destiny?
Here I find that working against nature is a path to nothingness because nature is generous, why not let it do. The method can also be used for purposes such as slowing down aging and improving the immune system. This will contribute to the welfare of the human himself, the decision maker or decide for a baby seems to me to live his own life and the lives of others
My question is: who is the happiest person of the 2 people who use these 2 machines?
Image source: https://pixabay.com
machine.jpg

I think, the mankind dont have other chance to survive, just the adapt, and crispr is a powerful option for adaptation.

@muratbesiroglu slm katkılarınız için teşekkür ederim. Çok güzel Seni takip edeceğim Sayfama bir göz atın =)

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Bu konuda çok fazla araştırma yapıldığından, umarım her alanda insanlığa bsnefit olarak gelecektir. @muratkbesiroglu

CRISPR indeed has the potential to revolutionise medicine, and by extension, the quality of human life. Though some challenges need to be overcome first, most notably the dangerous "off-target" effects. While CRISPR can be very precise in targeting only certain gene sequences, sometimes the CRISPR-Cas9 complex may target a similar sequence that it was not intended to, and thus cause unexpected damage.

In short, the next step is to refine CRISPR and make the system more precise, probably by using a different Cas nuclease.

i up vote your post please up vote my post to support me.....thanks

@muratkbesiroglu Do you really know mobie phone is 10 times higher than the NASA computer?

Excellent infomation.
Yes I like too.
If you want to know something so Join this team

10 times, our phones are hundreds or thousands of times more powerful than the moon shot computers. They had the computing power of a Casio watch. Gene technology has already changed all of our lives and will change our lives more than the internet. It essentially gives us the power of God.

excelente informacion da mucha esperanza gracias por compartir