History of Psychology: 17th - 19th Century. : Rational, empirical, associative psychology. /part 5/

in godflesh •  2 months ago

Each analyst is specialized in adopting a certain type of information. There are two types of reactions - there are two types of reflexes: a / unconditional (inherited) - they are implemented by inherited program, ie. by an inborn program. They are conservative reactions that do not contain the possibility of change, they are done in the same way and their centers are subordinate. They provide life for the body, such as swallowing, breathing, coughing, flashing, muscle contraction in pain. Specificity - these reactions can not adapt the body to sudden changes in the environment; b / conditional - here the program of realization is built into the individual life and this makes it possible to take into account the sudden changes in the environment.

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They are not conservative reactions and contain the possibility of change. Their brain centers are located in the bark of the cerebrum. Conditional reflexes provide the right adaptive behavior and the development of this behavior. Behavioral diversity is built on conditional reflexes. Definition of conditional reflex - these are the normal nervous reactions that are created by the simultaneous operation of an unconditional irritant and a coincidental stimulus incidentally coincident with it. Pavlov ends with the determination of the "signal" characteristic, which makes some objects from the environment visible to the organism, while others do not. If the site's properties are linked to the needs, the needs of the organism, the object is assessed as meaningful and its impact becomes a signal to the individual. If site properties are not linked to needs, the needs of the body, the site is assessed as meaningful and its impact on the analyzer is imperceptible to the organism. This explains the selectivity of the organism.

Creator of introspective / self-observing / psychology is Wilhelm Wundt - father of psychology - philosopher, idealist. Wundt deals with idealistic philosophy at the beginning of his career. Interested in the information that accumulates that human studies recognize the presence of particular nonspecific phenomena that can not be analyzed with the terminology of already existing scientific areas. It focuses on the study of physiology and non-specific phenomena. It is convinced that a new science must be built with its own scientific concepts to study these phenomena. In 1875 Wundt started working as a lecturer in philosophy at the University of Leipzig and began organizing the first experimental laboratory in psychology in Europe. In 1878, the first laboratory of experimental psychology was organized and this year is considered the starting point of science psychology. In general, Wundt 's work can be presented in three directions: - Institutional protection of psychology as an independent science.


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part 4

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