Terapi Oksigen

in esteem •  last year 

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Tujuan:
Mempertahankan oksigen jaringan yang kuat
Menurunkan kerja nafas
Menurunkan kerja jantung
Indikasi terapi oksigen:
Gagal nafas akut
Syok oleh berbagai penyebab
Infark miokard akut
Keadaan dimana metabolisme rate tinggi
Keracunan gas CO
Tindakan preoksigenasi menjelang induksi anestesi
Penderita tidak sadar
Untuk mengatasi keadaan-keadaan : emfisema pasca bedah, emboli udara, pneumotoraks
Asidosis
Anemia berat
Metode Pemberian Oksigen:
Sistem aliran rendah
Low flow low concentration (kateter nasal, kanul binasal)
Low flow high concentration (sungkup muka sederhana, sungkup muka kantong rebreathing, sungkup muka kantong non rebreathing)
Sistem aliran tinggi
High flow low concentration (sungkup venturi)
High flow high concentraton (head box, sungkup CPAP)
Kanul binasal : paling sering digunakan untuk pemberian oksigen, dengan aliran 1-6 liter/menit dengan konsentrasi 24-44%. Keuntungan : pemberian oksigen stabil, baik diberikan pada jangka waktu lama, pasien dapat bergerak bebas. Kerugian : iritasi hidung, konsentrasi oksigen akan berkurang bila pasien bernafas dengan mulut.

Sungkup muka sederhana : aliran diberikan 6-10 liter/menit dengan konsentrasi oksigen mencapai 60%.

Sungkup muka dengan kantong rebreathing : aliran diberikan 6-10 liter/menit dengan konsentrasi oksigen mencapai 80%.

Sungkup muka dangan kantong non rebreathing : aliran diberikan 8-12 liter/menit dengan konsentrasi oksigen mencapai 100%.

Bahaya dan efek samping pemberian oksigen:
Kebakaran
Hipoksia
Hipoventilasi
Atelektasis paru
Keracunan oksigen
Kesimpulan
Hipoksia adalah penurunan pemasukan oksigen ke jaringan sampai dibawah tingkat fisiologi meskipun perfusi jaringan oleh darah memadai, hal ini terjadi akibat berkurangnya tekanan oksigen di udara. Fungsi utama sistem respirasi adalah menjamin pertukaran O2 dan CO2. Bila terjadi kegagalan pernafasan maka oksigen yang sampai ke jaringan akan mengalami defisiensi akibatnya sel akan terganggu proses metabolismenya.

Terjadinya hipoksia banyak faktor yang mempengaruhinya diantaranya karena tindakan anestesi (anestesi yang terlalu dalam, sisa obat pelemas otot, obat narkotik), suatu penyakit (radang otak, radang syaraf, stroke, tumor otak, edema paru, gagal jantung, miastenia gravis), trauma/kecelakaan (cedera kepela, cedera tulang leher, cedera thorak, keracunan obat). Prinsip penanganan hipoksia adalah dengan membebaskan jalan nafas dengan mencari penyebabnya, bisa dengan cara Chin lift, Jaw thrust, jalan nafas orofaringeal, jalan nafas nasofaringeal, atau dengan suction.

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Hi! I am a robot. I just upvoted you! I found similar content that readers might be interested in:
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