EOS.IO DAWN 2.0 Released & Development Update

in eos •  14 days ago

dawn_2.0_steemit_post.jpg

EOS.IO Dawn 2.0 has been released along with a public test network which will be maintained by the block.one team. This release provides an Alpha implementation of most of the remaining features described in our Roadmap for Fall 2017 and originally targeted for completion by December 21, 2017. As published in our Roadmap, “Phase 2 - Minimal Viable Test Network” was to demonstrate the following by Fall 2017:

  • P2P Network Code
  • Wasm Sanitation & CPU Sandboxing
  • Resource Usage Tracking / Rate Limiting
  • Genesis Import Testing
  • Inter-Blockchain Communication

At this time, we have achieved the initial implementation of most of these features; however, due to parallel development paths our implementation of Inter-Blockchain Communication exists on a separate branch that will not be used for the initial test network.

Those interested in performance-testing our EOS.IO Dawn 2.0 release will find that all blockchain and network code necessary to launch and operate a private network can be found in our Github repository. Our internal testing shows we can sustain several thousand transfers per second and 1 second blocks using our single-threaded implementation on average hardware. That said, there are known attack vectors for which we have unimplemented solutions. For example, compilation of new contracts for the first time can take up to 34ms, which if exploited could cause the network to fragment at transaction rates over 30 TPS.

Our solution for this issue is to place limits on the frequency with which contract code can be updated, as well as a time delay between when code is updated and when transactions using that new code can be processed. This time delay will be on the order of 60 seconds to allow all block producers time to compile/cache the optimized x86 instructions from the web assembly.

Because of these outstanding attack vectors, performance testing will remain a task for private test networks, but feature testing can now be performed on a public test network which we are artificially limiting to 30 TPS to ensure uptime and access.

Over the next 6 months, we will be continuously testing and debugging the network to improve stability and performance.

New Features in Dawn 2.0

Genesis Import Testing

We have implemented a snapshot tool that will import initial state based upon the EOS ERC-20 token distribution on the Ethereum network. Our test network will only include balances which registered a valid EOS public key. About 20% of ERC-20 tokens have been properly registered to an EOS public key. Our snapshot tool also implements a fallback tool for all unregistered ERC-20 tokens held by an Ethereum account for which we can recover a public key from signed ethereum transactions. This covers 99% of all EOS ERC-20 tokens, but will require importing your Ethereum private key into your EOS.IO wallet.

For security purposes, our test network will not ask users to import their Ethereum private keys recovered via the fallback process. If your EOS private key is compromised while testing, you can always register a new key on the Ethereum network.

Token Faucets

We have also implemented a “faucet” facility to allow testing of the network by those who do not hold tokens or have not yet registered a valid EOS public key.

Resource Usage & Rate Limiting

We have implemented basic rate limiting and resource usage tracking. This tracks bandwidth, database storage, and computational usage. At this time there are some known bugs with our rate limiting algorithm, but nothing that should interfere with testing and developing of applications.

We know that many people have been asking for more information about how rate limiting will operate, who will be billed, and how they can lease their staked tokens for income.

Bandwidth

All transactions consume some of the maximum network bandwidth as configured by the block producers. All accounts whose authority is required for the transaction will have their 3-day average bandwidth incremented based upon the size of the transaction. Bandwidth will require the authorizing account (not the contract) to have staked tokens or to be delegated staked tokens by the application provider.

Computational Bandwidth

All transactions consume some computation. Computation can be executed in parallel, so it can be viewed as a multi-lane highway with each lane having different congestion. Each scope (lane) will have its own independent rate limit and a user will be billed O(S^2) for the number of simultaneous scopes (lanes) requested and rate limited based upon the most congested scope.

Database Storage

EOS.IO contracts have access to an in-memory database where they can store application state. The contract is billed based upon the total data they store plus a constant overhead factor for each independent database entry. This in-memory database is independent and separate from the EOS.IO Storage protocol for decentralized bulk hosting and storage.

P2P Network Code

We have a basic implementation of mesh network code that is being demonstrated by our public test network. Block.one is operating 21 independent servers each with one of the initial producers configured.

EOS Dawn 3.0

EOS Dawn 3.0 will re-introduce horizontal scaling of single chains and infinite scaling via secure inter-blockchain communication. With these two features there will be no limit to what can be built on blockchain technology, nor for how decentralized the network of blockchains can become.

Infinite Scaling and Infinite Decentralization

The holy grail of blockchain technology is to enable secure communication between two independent blockchains without requiring both blockchains to validate everything on the other blockchain. This requires making one blockchain a light-client of another blockchain.

Light clients authenticate transactions using only the block headers and merkle proofs. EOS.IO will be the first proof-of-stake protocol with support for light client validation. More importantly, it will be the only one capable of generating proof-of-completeness. This means it will be possible to prove you have received all relevant prior messages from another chain in order without having a waiting/challenge period.

Whereas traditionally light clients have to process all block headers, EOS.IO will enable light clients that only have to process block headers when producers change or when a new message is required from a more recent block. This will enable efficient infrequent communication between chains along with frequent communication. In the worst case, the overhead of two blockchains communicating every 500 ms will be about 2 transactions per second above the total number of messages sent.

Under this model, the communication will be secured so long as at least ⅓ of producers are honest. Furthermore, if even one producer is corrupt they can be automatically punished if they sign any message that could potentially corrupt a light client (aka foreign blockchain).

Lastly, the round-trip time for communicating to another blockchain depends upon the latency until irreversibility of each chain. An EOS.IO based chains will be able to send a message to a foreign EOS.IO chain and get a cryptographically verified response in under 3 seconds.

This level of interchain communication and security enables the creation of two-way pegs between chains with very low latency. While the two-way peg is the most obvious example, any business-to-business communication can be performed using this same method.

Public / Private Communication

With interchain communication it will be possible for private blockchains to have secure two-way communication with public blockchains. This enables all kinds of blockchain applications which are not well suited to the public nature of traditional blockchains. For example, someone could create the Swiss-Bank of blockchains that is super secret to everyone but the bank owners and the individuals.

Development Progress

In order to deliver our public test network, we divided our development into two parallel paths so that we could refactor significant portions of our code for readability, performance, and inter-blockchain communication. This refactoring work has been occurring in the eos-noon branch.

In past updates we indicated our intention to focus on shared-memory architectures so that developers could easily perform synchronous read-access and atomic transactions with other contracts. The consequence of this approach was a loss of horizontal scaling beyond a single high end machine.

With EOS Dawn 3.0 we will be restoring the ability to do multi-machine horizontal scaling by use of up to 65,000 different regions. All regions will share the same accounts and contract code, but have independent in memory databases. Contracts within one region must use asynchronous transactions to communicate with their counterparts in other regions. With this architecture a single block producer could be implemented as a cluster.

Working Integration with Apple’s Secure Enclave

In our last update we announced our intention to support the same elliptic curve used by Apple, Android, and many smart cards. Our eos-noon branch now includes a fully functional proof-of-concept where messages are signed and verified using Touch ID (and also Face ID) on the latest MacBook Pro’s. Similar code also works on native iPhone applications. This means that EOS.IO based mobile applications will be among the most secure blockchain wallets known.

Furthermore, the eos-noon branch has now integrated this support for multiple signature types which means it is possible to use secure enclave to sign transactions which will be validated on eos-noon.

500 ms Block Confirmation

On our eos-noon branch we have implemented a number of changes to the underlying DPOS framework to support 500 ms blocks (2 blocks every second). This change will dramatically increase the responsiveness of decentralized applications. To achieve this we have introduced some changes in how block scheduling occurs.

The same producer will now produce 12 blocks in a row before handing off to the next producer. This solves the single biggest bottleneck on block production which is producer-to-producer handoff. Under the new structure unexpected latency may cause a few blocks to be missed every time there is a hand off, but between handoffs there should be very fast confirmation. We will be experimenting with different hand-off periods. The longer the handoff period the fewer missed blocks during normal operation, but the longer the outage will be if a single node goes down. With 500ms and hand off every 12 blocks, the “down time” is no worse than when a single producer misses a single block on Steem and BitShares. In this event it could take 6 seconds for first confirmation.

Removing Runner Up Producers

Inter-blockchain communication requires light clients to keep track of all blocks where the set of active producers changes. The “runner up producer list” causes a new producer to be added or removed every minute which forces light clients to process at least one block header per minute, if not more. In order to reduce the frequency of producer set changes we have changed block scheduling to only include the top 21 producers. We are considering offering some kind of stand-by pay for the runner ups, but they will not actually be tasked with producing blocks.

One Second Irreversibility

Every block producer will sign every block which will enable a block to be marked irreversible as soon as ⅔+ producers have signed it. Producers are only allowed to sign one block header per block height. This means that in the event of a fork producers cannot sign blocks at the same height on both forks. Any such a signature will be cryptographic proof of misbehavior of a producer which can be dealt with by a number of methods including automatic loss of producer position, potential loss of bond, and potentially liability for damages under arbitration.

Unlike other protocols which gather ⅔+ signatures before the next block can be produced, EOS DPOS does optimistic pipelining that allows the blockchain to advance in “pending state” while the signatures are gathered. These additional signatures occur outside the blockchain and can be pruned after a block becomes irreversible under traditional DPOS rules of Steem or BitShares.

Under this model, it is possible to achieve byzantine fault tolerance because it is impossible for any block to receive ⅔+ signatures without cryptographic evidence of the byzantine nodes.

Removing Producer Schedule Shuffling

In order to minimize the number of missed blocks during producer handoff, it is desirable to minimize the latency between consecutive producers. If a producer in New York is scheduled to follow a producer in China it may take 250ms to receive a block under normal conditions (50% of block interval) and potentially much longer if there is network congestion. A producer in New York and Texas on the other hand would only have 50ms of latency (10% of block interval). This means there is a significantly lower probability of missing blocks during a handoff from New York to Texas than from New York to China.

If we schedule block production such that it rotates from New York, to Texas, to California, to Hawaii, to Japan, China, India, Israel, Italy, England, Iceland, and back to New York then there is never a hand off of more than 50 to 100ms. However if the order is randomized then the average hand off will be significantly higher.

Producer shuffling was introduced to minimize the potential of one producer to pick on a subsequent producer. This risk was in a world where producers were presumed to be potentially malicious, but in the world of highly vetted, public, producers with high quality data centers it no longer makes sense. There is a constitution and expected level of behavior along with a process for resolving disputes in the event one producer intentionally harms his neighbor.

Under EOS the producers will vote on the production rotation order in a way that minimizes average latency and minimizes total missed blocks due to Internet network congestion.

Known Issues

There are a number of known issues with EOS Dawn 2.0 and it is expected for there to be significant instability with this early release. The purpose of this release is to demonstrate a basic capability and our team will be ironing out bugs and improving stability and performance over the the next 6 months.

In order to support stability of the test network, we have disabled producer voting.

Conclusion

We would like to thank our development team for working around the clock and around the globe to build and deliver EOS Dawn 2.0, an alpha version of what will become the most robust, highest performance, most decentralized application platform available. We are executing according to our published roadmap and delivering more features and capabilities than originally planned. We look forward to 2018 and are confident that all features will be complete and bugs resolved by the time the EOS token distribution is concluded.

Disclaimer
block.one is a software company and is producing the EOS.IO software as free, open source software. This software may enable those who deploy it to launch a blockchain or decentralized applications with the features described above. block.one will not be launching a public blockchain based on the EOS.IO software. It will be the sole responsibility of third parties and the community and those who wish to become block producers to implement the features and/or provide the services described above as they see fit. block.one does not guarantee that anyone will implement such features or provide such services or that the EOS.IO software will be adopted and deployed in any way.

All statements in this document, other than statements of historical facts, including any statements regarding block.one’s business strategy, plans, prospects, developments and objectives are forward looking statements. These statements are only predictions and reflect block.one’s current beliefs and expectations with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and are subject to risk, uncertainties and change at any time. We operate in a rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. Given these risks and uncertainties, you are cautioned not to rely on these forward-looking statements. Actual results, performance or events may differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking statements. Some of the factors that could cause actual results, performance or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained herein include, without limitation: market volatility; continued availability of capital, financing and personnel; product acceptance; the commercial success of any new products or technologies; competition; government regulation and laws; and general economic, market or business conditions. Any forward-looking statement made by block.one speaks only as of the date on which it is made and block.one is under no obligation to, and expressly disclaims any obligation to, update or alter its forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, subsequent events or otherwise.

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@ned if you want to flag this post please leave a comment with your reasons.

If you do not have arguments then it is abuse of power.

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Seconded. @ned please provide an explanation. Otherwise, this casts a poor light onto yourself.

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Seems bitter.

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I'd love to hear the lame explanation he has as well. I don't expect him to say a word about it. There's already a ton of people on here calling him out for his childish behavior.

About 20% of ERC-20 tokens have been properly registered to an EOS public key. Our snapshot tool also implements a fallback tool for all unregistered ERC-20 tokens held by an Ethereum account for which we can recover a public key from signed ethereum transactions.

What does properly registered mean?

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Prior to this post it was my understanding that eos tokens needed to be registered before the blockchain is launched mid next year.

You can find information on how to register tokens on the eos.io website.

Just tagging on an extra question. Can the snapshot tool be used after the deadline to register tokens?

Removing Runner Up Producers
Inter-blockchain communication requires light clients to keep track of all blocks where the set of active producers changes. The “runner up producer list” causes a new producer to be added or removed every minute which forces light clients to process at least one block header per minute, if not more. In order to reduce the frequency of producer set changes we have changed block scheduling to only include the top 21 producers. We are considering offering some kind of stand-by pay for the runner ups, but they will not actually be tasked with producing blocks.

I would like to hear more about this. One of the benefits of rotating the 21st BP is to provide incentive for other BPs to continue to support the blockchain. If we remove this, we could see a scenario where only 21 BPs exist in total. I would prefer there to be 100 BPs waiting in queue for the chance to get the 21st block. Very interested to hear about the stand-by pay and what the community will want. As it stands today I would be pro stand-by pay.

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standby pay could even require them to sign every block, just not getting to produce blocks.

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I like this idea. Seems workable and would incentivize multiple BPs to continue to sign blocks and be a part of the network.

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So in other-words... it's far superior to Ethereum even in its Alpha phase?

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I read the whole thing, and got a major boner... I'm so excited!

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That's what I didn't understand with the old system. Who would have a high powered system on standby ready to be a block producer and earn nothing whilst not being nominated. Now, are you thinking of having a higher inflation rate of EOS tokens, or pay the 21 producers less, to cover the cost of the runner ups?

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Producers were always planned to have less than 5% total, most of that 5% was intended for community benefit contracts.

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@dan Would the EOS token itself be inflated up to 5% a year as well ? I understand that new blockchains adopting the EOSIO software could have inflation. Thanks !

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I'd like to hear the answer to this as well. A downvote from you @ned on this topic feels like investment advice (i.e. sell all my STEEM and buy another 10k of EOS).

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@ned your silence is deafening. Are you purposefully not coming back on this to fuel speculation?

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speculation ? Are you blind ? He down-voted the post.

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@ned is obviously not aware that half of the Steem infrastructure can just fuck off from Steem just because of this childish and completely non-professional move he made publicly.

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I read this info in my mail this morning, I wonder why I don't get that from Steem Inc.?

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it amounts to attempting censorship for your own gain @ned. appaling.

Thanks for these news.

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And thanks to the EOS team for delivering :)

I read all this in a hearth beat and I can't wait for the real deal to be implemented. What's 6 months!?

Is this r/bitcoin ?!?!

Why is it saying that this post was hidden "due to low ratings"? I'm seeing 100+ upvotes as of 3pm ET in the USA. Is this post being censored by Steemit?

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@ned has beef with dan and was being a child

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Very childish. No reason to downvote something to try to hide it. Just makes it obvious who's an adult and who's not.

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yea weird

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If a creator can censor a decentralized platform what was the point of it in the first place?

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On blockchain level, there is no censorship. It's only there at app level.
Also, Steemit is only one app on Steem among many others.

Thank you for posting @eosio.

Are Steemians looking forward to this development....indeed they are.

Appreciate the updates.

Thank you to all those working around the clock.

Wishing you all the best. Cheers.

NB; The greek word......'iaspas'...pronouned E..OS..pas means diamond....a translucent....transparent precious stone.

Excuse moi, Maybe this is of topic but I bought my EOS shares at my BTS account do I have to registrate them somewhere?

For the less technically inclined (like myself), anyone willing to make a small tutorial enabling us to test our EOS keys?

Still funny seeing people calling eos a scam xD Probably the most promising project in crypto atm and using multiple threads/horizontal and parallel scalaing in my opinion is an amazing solution to the scalability problem. Clean solutions to blockchains biggest problem look like the usual to Daniel Larimer and this team.

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I hear ya... It's beyond ridiculous. I see people fudding it all the time on flakebook.

Very interesting

EOS ! Ethereum on Steroids !! you go guys !!

Congratulations to Dan, Brendan and the B1 team! You guys delivered more than expected and ahead of schedule.

There is so much to be excited about, however, my takeaway is the secure smartphone wallet. Being able to easily and securely store and transact on a smartphone is rocket fuel for global mass adoption - and it sounds like EOS has it nailed.

The next generation of blockchain and Everyone's Open Society if you care to be a part of it. Very exciting times.

Congrats !

amazing, as a non coder, what is the most killing feature you read here for 2.0 or will be ready for 3.0?

Excellent news. This project goes from strength to strength!

Amazing. Thanks for all the hard work!

One question: as it relates to changes to block production, the paper addressed the possible risk of having a pre-selected order of block producers for each round. The paper doesn't, however, address and potential risks of having each producers deliver 12 blocks in a row. Anyone have thoughts on that aspect?

Cheers to the dev team and the whole EOS community!

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Under Steem each producer is responsible for a 3 second window of time... under the proposed changes EOS.IO would have each producer responsible for a 6 second window of time during which 12 blocks would be produced. As those 12 blocks are produced the other 20 producers also sign them and make them irreversible (after 2-3 blocks, 1-1.5sec).

So as described above, the biggest issue is a producer going down (not producing) in which case there would be 6 seconds (12 missed blocks). This is the same with Steem, a single producer going down creates a 6 second gap with no confirmed transactions.

Great updates.... EOS is rocking in terms of marketcap, wish all these proposed features will be live soon.

Congratulations on the Dawn of a new era!

Holy Shit! As an early EOS small investor, this sounds Great!
(and there's not one fucking bit of that entire article that I understood).

But, I'm a believer and time will prove my resolve!!

This just keeps getting better everyday.

Congrats !!

Well done EOS

Hope the next announcement is cutting-short the ICO time ;)

1 Year is Gigantic

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Yet also innovative, that is what makes EOS different roght. And we all wat to be different to stand out.

congratulations! my team are studying EOS.IO for a long time , now we can test my blockchain project demo on EOS.IO dawn 2.0.

Thanks for letting us know!

YES YES YES @eosio, keep up the good work!!!!!

where can i access EOS.IO wallet?
good job guys. My retirement depends on it.

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exodus wallet supports eos

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Wow, I'll tell my parents ;)

When is the token sale going to end and why is the token sale so lengthy ??

Everyone say hello to their EOS supplies for me :)

Congratulations @eosio, this post is the most rewarded post (based on pending payouts) in the last 12 hours written by a User account holder (accounts that hold between 0.1 and 1.0 Mega Vests). The total number of posts by User account holders during this period was 2921 and the total pending payments to posts in this category was $2813.30. To see the full list of highest paid posts across all accounts categories, click here.

If you do not wish to receive these messages in future, please reply stop to this comment.

EOS is going to be freaking awesome. HODL for dear life for a market cap at least equal to Ethereum.

Great announcement! Such bad form to downvote it. Eos will have to go elsewhere for their official announcements and Steemit only loses out from that

This is amazing.
But I need to understand more about communication between chains... what is this?

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after I asked this Dan published this post about interblockchain communication.
https://steemit.com/eos/@dan/inter-blockchain-communication-via-merkle-proofs-with-eos-io

Interesting post! Thanks for sharing!

EOS!! To the Moon!

Under EOS the producers will vote on the production rotation order in a way that minimizes average latency and minimizes total missed blocks due to Internet network congestion.

This doesn't seem right to remove random block producer selection. If block producers collude and vote each other in. They may well get voted out by the honest nodes eventually but by then the damage is already done and the fraudulent transactions are now deep in the blockchain.

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the thing with proof of stake is that they need a large amount of the crypto to do that. When people find out that happened the price will crash, so they will lose everything they put in to do that.

Although there are still reasons to do that

EOS is the most interesting blockchain so far for me, could be the one to actually take the technology into the next stage.

Too many projects lack the most vital piece of the puzzle, scalability. Steemit proved that could be solved for me and this is really the next stage on, a true blockchain OS.

Bitcoin gets all the press because of the price rises but that bubble can't go on too much longer. All the BS in fighting over how to make it scale will bring down that house of cards.

Can't wait to see what EOS makes possible when it really goes live :)

Go to moon!!!!!!!

eos.noon!! Great work!

To the.. u know.

It is exciting to see the developments in EOS. I'm disappointed that it appears EOS will NOT be HIGHLY decentralized. "In order to reduce the frequency of producer set changes we have changed block scheduling to only include the top 21 producers."

I am still excited about where this is going, but for me it is not what was promised.

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I think it's the tradeoff of the DPOS speed

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the proof will be in the pudding but in the real world, compromises must be made for the benefit of the whole. That's the difference between Dan and Block.One and other "projects". This one will be implemented and implemented well. This is because they understand the only way forward is through compromise.

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They certainly are results-oriented. I don't mean to be negative about such an exciting project. Just wanted to note what I see as a weakness.

Thank you for making the test net a priority!

yeekh, I wanted to buy some more EOS with price like $0.5 per EOS :-(
Now it's almost $4.

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You can purchase EOS via official website https://eos.io/. If luckily you will get EOS at price $0.5. Like lucky draw game and Good luck.

Wow, EOS coming..

Where is the Press Conference?

Not sure if anyone has played cryptokitties but I cant help but imagine how much better it would run on EOS. Ethereum can not deliver a good user experience as it.

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Was thinking the same thing, I like to see something like that run on EOS platform just to compare apple with apple. No doubt EOS would proof to all the doubters wrong.

Wooooooooooooooot!!! The future is here!!

Good job! I was buy EOS token yesterday! I still don't understand about EOS and way to buy EOS Distribution.

This post has received a 100.00 % upvote from @steemdiffuser thanks to: @jbbasics. Steem on my friend!

Get Upvotes, Join Our Trail, or Delegate Some SP

The future of blockchain system.
Hope it will be successful

people are saying this is better than ether why is there such a big difference on the price?

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Ethereum's blockchain has been public for 2 & 1/2 years and while it's still under development, it has a lot of momentum. The EOS Ethereum-based token has not yet been around a year, and as a blockchain & a platform, it doesn't really exist yet (for the public, except for development testing).

AM so excited to here this news. Cant wait for ethereum to be taken off the ethereum block chain. Great work. Cheers.

Thanks for the post. I am eager to learn more about EOS, hoping for some tutorials.
I have some thoughts to Data Management:
When Datastorage creates costs, then Data has to be managed in some way. Not needed Data has to be removed. How is this fitting with the immutability "feature" of the blockchain?
I am wondering how unneeded/unnessesary data is defined and who gets to decide which data can be removed. Would make sense to me to give the decision to delete data to the persons that "own" them but in the end the App Developer has to decide about the storage if he is the one staking EOS to pay for Bandwidth/Storage for his app. Can permissions to data operations be handled individually in the EOS Storage?

Thank You every one at Block one working on EOS. On a lighter note Ether continues to heard Cats.

Thanks for sharing!

Thank you Block One I've been waiting for this news

This is awesome. So is the price of my EOS. Keep up the great work.

I know a lil bit of programming but is there any tutorial on how to install the software. I would like to learn to make Dapps on the EOS blockchain so is there anyone here can help me with the basics first?

What is the good buying price for the EOS token right now? I am thinking somewhere around $2.5US. What do you think?

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You can purchase EOS via official website https://eos.io/. If luckily you will get EOS at price $2.5. Like lucky draw game and Good luck.

Thank you for whoever downvoted this post. I love EOS and this was a great article but the person who downvoted it was making a statement about how broken STEEMIT is! Steemit is controlled by the whales and needs to implement a fair system.

You can find Russian version of this post HERE


Русская версия тут

This is awesome, really nice job! We will follow this work and maybe develop our future DAPP based on EOS system.

interessant!....
57954.jpg

i like it, now a question. for what i understood they will not host any blockchain, they will just develop the technology and those interested third parties wil set the blockchain and their dapps? there will be no eos blockchain like eth for instance but different ones by different parties and they may called the way they want, like forks. is this right???

Will the people who have eos coins bought through their exodus wallet or eos wallet downloaded on google playstore have any trouble versus people who buy eos coins directly off eos.io???? Tell me

Nice job

The great opportunity of our needy community to get out of this position that our corrupt government has put us through years of slavery. Thank you so much for the beautiful work.