RE: Learn And Contest 9
Species: Curcuma longa
Distribution and habitat
It is adapted to warm humid areas. It can be found from Polynesia and Micronesia to Southeast Asia. It needs temperatures between 20 and 30 ° C and considerable rainfall to thrive.3 Sangli, a city in southern India, is one of the largest producers of this plant. It is cultivated by its rhizomes, which are used as spice
The extract of this plant is used as a food coloring in two ways: as turmeric (raw extract), cataloged with the European Union food code as E-100ii, it shows a yellow color and is extracted from the root of the plant; and as curcumin (purified or refined state); both states generally referred to as turmeric.
Turmeric is one of the ingredients of curry in Indian cuisine and provides a characteristic deep yellow color, from the root of the plant - this yellow is equally intense regardless of whether the plant is used fresh or dried. It is very unstable in the presence of light but its stability can be improved by adding citrus juices.
The most important chemical components of turmeric are a group of compounds called curcuminoids, which include curcumin (diferuloylmethane), demethoxyurcumin and bisdemethoxyurcumin. The best studied compound is curcumin, which constitutes 3.14% (on average) of turmeric powder.4 In addition there are other important volatile oils such as turmerone, atlantone and zingiberene. Some general constituents are sugars, proteins and resins.