An organic life is composed of the main elements C, H, and O. Plus some other elements such as N, S and P. There are at least 3 kinds of organic compounds that become a chemical component of a cell, namely: carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Carbohydrates are composed of elements C, H and O with the molecular formula (CnHnOn) for example: glucose (C6H12O6), triosa (C3H6O3) and so forth.
Carbohydrates are synthesized primarily by plant cells through the process of photosynthesis.
In certain types of microorganisms, carbohydrates are also synthesized through the process of chemosynthesis.
Disaccharide, is a carbohydrate containing 2 units of saccharide, which at the time of saccharide dihydrolisi will be two monosaccharides. For example: sucrose (hydrolyzed into glucose and fructose), maltose (hydrolyzed into 2 glucose).
Polysaccharides, which are carbohydrates with an arrangement composed of monosaccharide units. Some polysaccharide groups, among others: starch, glycogen / sugar of the liver, and cellulose as the formation of plant cell walls.
B. Fats / Lipids
Composed of elements C, H and O, fat has several functions, such as: forming cell membranes with proteins and carbohydrates, regulating the circulation of fat, as well as a source of energy reserves for cells.
The main compounds that make up fat are fatty acids and glycerol. Some compounds including fat include fatty acids, night, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (eg vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids, terpenoids (including sap and steroids) and others.
Somewhat different from carbohydrates and fats, proteins other than composed of elements C, H and O are also composed of elements of N and sometimes also coupled with P and S. Proteins are components of the cell and its parts.
Some important roles / functions of proteins include: forming cell organelles (ribosomes, mitochondria, chromosomes etc.), forming cell membranes, building and replacing worn tissue, forming other compounds (hormones, antibodies, enzymes).
Inside the cell itself there are various types of proteins, for example: simple proteins (albumin, globulin), protein complex (lipoprotein, nucleoprotein), enzymes (coenzymes, apoenzymes), hormones, nucleic acids. Proteins are synthesized in the body through a process of protein synthesis in which certain amino acids are arranged to form a polypeptide series.