The Diversity Bonus: How Great Teams Pay Off in the Knowledge Economy (Our Compelling Interests)

in writing •  5 months ago

Be able to see the forest, not the tree. If you accept the diversity, innovation will begin.

Astro Teller, former CEO of Google who invented the lunar exploration project in Google's parent company Alphabet, said this.

"It is important to put together different ideas and people with different perspectives. If you really want to go on a road that you have not been to, you should not go to him with someone who thinks like me. "

You need to see the forest, not the tree.

Professor Scott Page of Michigan University wrote in his book, "The Diversity Bonus: How Great Teams Pay Off in the Knowledge Economy (Our Compelling Interests)"
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Professor David Griffith's logic is fun. I explain how to approach problems in an open position and, above all, play with problems.

For example, a traffic jam model will be created and analyzed, and most of the time the analysis will start on the traffic volume of the vehicle. But Professor Griffith is asking questions.

"If you want to analyze the traffic jam as a model, why do not you have to track and analyze the space without car?"

This question is likely to be easier to analyze in terms of tracking how the openings on the road change than the movement of the car that filled the road.

There are three characteristics of a situation where sparkling, insightful ideas come out.

First, a fairly complex problem is the subject. I want to solve the problem by establishing the higher order equations needed to explain, analyze and predict the problems developed in complex situations.

Second, no matter how complex the problem is, the idea of ​​'knocking' your knee is not magic. In fact, there is almost no creation of nothing. New ideas come from tweaking and reviewing existing solutions and approaches to find new ways or apply multiple alternatives at once. For example, Apple is an innovative use of touchscreen technology that already exists on the iPhone. Professor Griffith asks you to apply one of the basic concepts of information theory, the minimum description length. That is to say, 'ABCDEFGHIJKMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ' should be shortened to 'No-L'. It's not clear that getting new ideas out of the way of thinking leads to tremendous gains. The benefits of new ideas are not so great. However, if these ideas come together, the effect can be very large. Sometimes progress is seen as a tremendous leap, and the small strides of many people in the big division are gathered and piled up.

Third, innovative ideas are not usually in one's mind, but in the process of thinking and discussing together. When a person approaches a problem in a particular way and finds a solution and solves the problem, the next person makes a new opinion based on it, or adds something to it and subtracts it from it.

Professor John Holland, a computer scientist, has often asked this question.

"Is the thought going through the Markov process? It is a Markov process that changes some propositions and arguments and transforms them like that. "

Through the Markov process, one's thoughts and arguments can be refined and refined. Sometimes this simple process leads to insights.

Most research or projects are done on a team basis, not individual. Financial investment is also the case, and composing is often done by several people. Numerous research teams are struggling with increasingly complex world problems. In the past, road construction was easy to decide, but now, when constructing transportation infrastructure and logistics infrastructure, it is necessary to consider many variables such as environmental factors, economic effects, social factors, and political change.

It is almost impossible for a single person to fully understand the problem and find a solution. There are not a few factors that affect the increase in obesity and the rate of obesity. Transit systems and infrastructure, instant food, the press, changes in social norms, physiological or psychological changes all affect. Thinking about building an aircraft carrier, knowledge of nuclear engineering, shipbuilding engineering, information engineering, metallurgy, and fluid mechanics must be brought together. Here we must also know the rules of the army, the features and aspects of modern warfare, and predict how weapons systems will change a few years later.

Complex problems are multidimensional. The complex structure is contrary to the principle of wisdom that the person with the most ability is selected. If you look at the various dimensions, you can not have only one outstanding person. When a biotechnology company produces a team to study tumors, the company does not select people who are highly graded according to their test scores. Also, they do not pick out only those who have good academic backgrounds or who are brilliant in their careers. Instead, make sure you are teaming up with diversity in mind. This is because it increases the likelihood of team members building success so that they can add variety to the knowledge, tools, and analytical skills they share. These teams will include mathematicians and will study the epidemiology of tumors or contribute to solving the differential equations needed.

The team must be motivated to pursue diversity and the team must be one of the most capable in each area. Some argue that the team can be the best team. But these claims do not match reality. In fact, it does not become the best team to find out that the test scores are particularly good, Because each area has a different depth and range, it is impossible to identify the best talent.

In the field of neuroscience, there are about 50,000 papers published every year about numerous technologies, research methods, and analysis processes applied to molecules, synapses, and neurons in neurons. Neuroscience can not be ranked and ranked on the basis of 50,000 pieces of research that have been studied in such a complicated subdivision. It's impossible. Therefore, it is possible to assemble the best team with the best person according to the context and situation. The best team we have created will certainly have the power to exercise diversity. Researches and patents that come up with various ideas and discussions have a great impact on real life. It is important to remember that diversity is important.

The structure of random decision forests used in artificial intelligence algorithms also includes diversity. Decision trees, which are divided into several branches along each branch, become a random forest, a decision forest. When sorting photos, each decision tree branch is chosen by the person who gets more votes from the fox or person vote in the picture. Decision trees are used in a variety of ways in this way called the weighted majority rule. You can identify financial frauds, find diseases, analyze house interiors and indoor air quality to recommend fans on the ceiling, or predict what will happen in online dating.

When making decision trees, we do not make forests by picking only the best trees to get the answers right. Diversity is needed because if you put together the best trees all will end up doing the same thing better. Algorithms Programmers train each decision tree with different data to increase variability. This is called bagging. In addition, when you train decision trees, you will be able to increase the decision-making power of new forests by repeating the difficult cases in which decision trees are not properly aligned. This process makes decision trees more diverse and more accurate.

In this way, however, there may still be errors of skill. There are still practices that test, grade, and select in order of abstraction when choosing a student from a corporation, nonprofit organization, government, university, or kindergarten. In this way, you will never be able to build the best team. If you apply the common criteria collectively and rank them, the feeling of homogeneity will increase, but the characteristic will disappear and the person will be gathered only for the person with a lot of personality. Repetition of this process will result in collective prejudice, and again, a vicious circle will be established that draws people who are similar to themselves and makes a closed decision. There is no innovation in such an organization.

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