Around the world, one in three women has suffered some type of sexual, physical or psychological violence caused by a man
The United Nations (UN) defines violence against women as "any act of gender violence that results in, or may result in physical, sexual or psychological harm to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or the arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether they occur in public or private life. " Around the world, almost 30% of women have suffered some kind of violence caused by their partner or ex-partner.
Violence against women is a serious problem and a violation of human rights. According to figures from the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately one in three women in the world have suffered sexual and / or physical violence either from their partner or from a third or unknown.
Dating violence is defined as the behavior that a partner or ex-partner assumes to harm a woman, whether it is physical, sexual or psychological harm; where they include physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and control behavior. On the other hand, sexual violence is the consummation or attempt to consummate a sexual act against the will of the victim, regardless of whether it is their partner or not.
Most episodes of violence against women (whether sexual, physical or psychological) come from their partners or ex-partners, while 38% of murders of women (femicides) around the world are committed by their partner or ex-partner. male couple
Femicide is an extreme case, but even if it is not reached, any type of violence can cause the victim severe damage to their physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health, as well as an increased risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. (ETS) like HIV.
A low level of education or having been exposed to similar scenes in the family as well as the consumption of alcohol and drugs or taking violence as something natural are factors that increase the risk of committing violent acts as well as being a victim of violence . Likewise, situations of conflict, post-conflict and displacement can aggravate violence, such as violence on the part of the couple, and lead to additional forms of violence against women.
A study conducted in 2013 by the WHO, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Medical Research Council, based on data from more than 80 countries, found that almost a third (30%) of women who have maintained a relationship have suffered physical or sexual violence from their partner.
The same study also revealed that 38% of the murders of women that occur in the world are committed by their partner. And in addition, 7% of women report having suffered sexual assault by people other than their partner.
Partner violence and sexual violence are perpetrated mostly by men against women and girls. Child sexual abuse affects children. In international studies conducted, approximately 20% of women and between 5% and 10% of men report having been victims of sexual violence in childhood.
Risk factors of partner violence and sexual violence against women
The factors that increase the risk of violence against women are not only individual factors, but also family, social and community-wide factors. Among the risk factors of both, partner violence and sexual violence, the following are very frequent:
- Low level of education (authors of sexual violence and victims of sexual violence)
- Exposure to child abuse (authors and victims)
- The experience of family violence (authors and victims)
- Antisocial personality disorder (authors)
- The harmful use of alcohol (authors and victims)
- The fact of having many partners or of inspiring suspicion of infidelity in the couple (authors)
- The attitudes of acceptance of violence (authors and victims)
Among the factors specifically associated with intimate partner violence, it is worth mentioning
- The history of violence (authors and victims)
- Marital discord and dissatisfaction (authors and victims)
- Communication difficulties between the members of the couple
Among the factors specifically associated with sexual violence are:
- The belief in the honor of the family and sexual purity
- The ideologies that consecrate the sexual privileges of man
- The lightness of legal sanctions against acts of sexual violence