the view of the sun

in #story2 years ago

imageAverage observation data
from Earth1,496 × 108 km
8 minutes 19 seconds (speed of light) Visual brightness (V) -26.74 [1] absolute magnitude 4.83 [1] Spectrum classificationG2VMetalisationZ = 0.0122 [2] Diameter 31.6 '- 32.7' CharacteristicsClassical features Orbit average
from the core of the Milky Way ~ 2,5 × 1017 km
26,000 light yearsGalaxy code (2.25-2.50) × 108 aCancer ~ 220 km / sec (orbit around the center of the galaxy)
~ 20 km / sec (relative to the average speed of another star in a star group)
~ 370 km / sec [4] (relative to the cosmic microwave background) Physical characteristicsDiameter average1,392684 × 106 km [5] Equatorial radius6,96342 × 105 km [5]
109 × Earth [6] On the equator4,379 × 106 km [6]
109 × Earth [6] Accuracy9 × 10-6 Surface area6,0877 × 1012 km2 [6]
11,990 × Earth [6] Volume1,412 × 1018 km3 [6]
1,300,000 × EarthMassa1,9891 × 1030 kg [1]
333,000 × Earth [1] Average density 1,408 × 103 kg / m3 [1] [6] [7] Central density (1.622 × 105 kg / m3 [1]
Photosphere below: 2 × 10-4 kg / m3
Bottom chromosome: 5 × 10-6 kg / m3
Corona (rt): 1 × 10-12 kg / m3 [8] The gravity of the surface of the atmosphere274.0 m / s2 [1]
27.94 g
27.542,29 cgs
28 × Earth [6] Released speed
(from surface) 617.7 km / sec [6]
55 × Earth [6] Temperature Center (model): ~ 1.57 × 107 K [1]
Photosphere (effective): 5.778 K [1]
Corona: ~ 5 × 106 KLuminositas (Lsol) 3.846 × 1026 W [1]
~ 3.75 × 1028 lm
~ 98 lm / W powerIntensity average (Isol) 2,009 × 107 W · m-2 · sr-1Usia4.57 billion years [9] Rotational featuresFrom7,25 ° [1]
(against ekliptika)
67.23 °
(against galaxies) Asensio rekta
from the north pole [10] 286.13 °
19 hours 4 minutes 30 secondsDeclination
from the north pole + 63.87 °
63 ° 52 'North sidereal route
(at equator) 25.05 days [1] (at latitude 16 °) 25.38 days [1]
25 days 9 hours 7 minutes 12 seconds [10] (at poles) 34.4 days [1] Rotation speed
(at equator) 7,189 × 103 km / h [6] Photocopier composition (by mass) Hydrogen73.46% [11] Helium24.85% Oxygen0,77% Carbon0,29% Iron 0,16% Neon0,12% Nitrogen0,09% Silicon0,07% Magnesium0,05% Sulphate0,04%

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Chemically, approximately three-quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen, while the rest is dominated by helium. The remaining mass (1.69%, equivalent to 5.629 times Earth mass) consists of heavy elements such as oxygen, carbon, neon, iron, etc. [15]

The Sun formed around 4.6 billion years ago due to the decay of gravity of a region within a large molecule cloud. Most of the material is gathered in the middle, while the rest overflows into circulating discs that later become the Solar System. The center mass is getting hot and dense and finally starts the basic termonuklirdi fusion. It is suspected that almost all other stars are formed by a similar process. The classification of the Sun's star, based on its spectral class, is a major G-series star (G2V) and is often categorized as yellow dwarf because radiation appears to be more intense in red spectrum. Although the color is white, from the Earth's surface the Sun looks yellow due to blending the blue light in the atmosphere. [16] According to the spectrum class label, G2 indicates that its surface temperature is about 5778 K (5505 ° C) and V indicates that the Sun, like other stars, is the main series of stars, so that its energy is created by nuclear fusion of nucleushidrogen into helium. In essence, the Sun fills 620 million metric tons of hydrogen per second.

In the past, the Sun viewed astronomers as small stars and did not matter. Now, the Sun is considered brighter than about 85% of stars in the red-black-dominated Milky Way galaxy. [17] [18] The absolute magnitude of the Sun is +4.83. However, as the star is closest to Earth, the Sun is the sunny thing in the sky with a magnitude of 26.74. [19] [20] Sun heat corona extends beyond space and creates the Sun's wind, which is a charged particle current that moves up to a heliopause of about 100 au. The bubble in the interstellar medium formed by the Sun wind, the heliosphere, is the largest continuum structure in the Solar System. [21] [22]

The Sun currently moves through Local Antarbaran Cloud (near Cloud G) in the Local Bubble zone, precisely within the inner circle of the Orion Arm in the Milky Way. [23] [24] Of the 50 nearest star systems within 17 light-years from Earth (the nearest star is a reddish dwarf named Proxima Centauri about 4.2 light-years), the Sun has the fourth largest mass. [25] The Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way at a distance of approximately 24,000-26,000 light-years from the center of the galaxy. When viewed from the north pole of the galaxy, the Sun completes one orbit clockwise in about 225-250 million years. Because the Milky Way moves relative to the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) towards the Hydra constellation with a speed of 550 km / s, the speed of the Sun relative to the CMB is about 370 km / sec in the direction of the Crater or Leo. [26]

The average distance of the Sun from Earth is about 149.6 million kilometers (1 au), although the distance varies with Earth's motion