SAFETY AND INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE [1]

in stemsteem •  last year 

Source

SECURITY AND INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE

Industrial safety
Set of principles, laws and rules formulated whose objective is the control of the risk of accident and damage to people as to the equipment and materials that affect in all productive activity.

Unsafe Act
Voluntary activity, action or omission that leads to the violation of a procedure, norm, regulation or safe practice established by the State, as well as by the company, which causes a work accident or occupational disease.

Unsafe condition
Situation or physical or environmental characteristic foreseeable beyond normal or correct, capable of producing an accident at work, occupational disease or fatigue of the worker.

Company safety organ
Entity of the company, own or contracted whose function is to establish and enforce the policies, objectives, projects and strategies of the hsi.

Incident
Any unforeseen and unwanted event that interrupts the normal development of an activity without causing additional consequences or loss of another type.

Accident
Unwanted event that interrupts the normal development of an activity and causes personal injuries, damage to the environment and / or property damage.

Work accident
Unwanted event that produces a functional or bodily injury, permanent or temporary or death due to an external force that may occur in the course of work.

Order
When there are no unnecessary things and all things are in place.

Cleaning
When things are in their proper places well arranged and in satisfactory conditions.

Agent
It refers to the group directly linked to the accident.

Agent portion
That part of the agent that is most intimately linked to the accident.

Insecure physical or mechanical condition
Factors that have to do with the condition of the agent that could have been corrected or protected.

Personal insecurity factor
Psychological situation of the operator that allows the unsafe act, example; improper attitude, lack of knowledge, physical defect, lack of interest, etc.

Toxicity
Ability of a material to cause an injury.

Risk
Possibility of a material causing an injury under certain conditions of use.

HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE OR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

Year 400 A.C.

Hippocrates
Recognizes and records the toxicity of lead in mining operations.
It refers to the epidemic of diphtheria among slave women, and the impotence of those who rode horses, diseases that slaves did not suffer. describes diseases characteristic of miners and artisans.

Year 100 AD.

Pliny the Elder
Roman scholar, refers to the dangers inherent in the traffic of zinc and sulfur. describes a protective mask derived from the bladder of cattle to be used by workers exposed to metallic powder and fume volumes of lead.

Year 200 AD.

Galen the Greek
Greek doctor residing in Rome belonged to the school of Pergamum. He was responsible for the health of the gladiators. he writes a lot of theories about anatomy and pathology.
recognizes the dangers of vapors in copper mines, but does not propose solutions.

Year 800 to 1000 AD.

Very little is done to improve the conditions of workers. the only advances are presented with the creation of guilds, which were intended to protect sick members and their families.

Year 1100 to 1300 D.C.

Observation and experimentation flourish in universities, but the study of occupational diseases was virtually ignored.

Year 1473 AD.

Ulrich Ellenborg
It publishes a pamphlet directed to the goldsmiths, on occupational diseases and accompanies with instructions on hygiene. refers to the toxic effects of fumes and vapors that are released from coal, nitric oxide, lead and mercury.

Year 1556 D.C.

Georgius Agricola
German scholar publishes the book of remetalica (1541), describes the risks associated with the mining industry. includes suggestions for ventilation in the mines and protective masks for miners. It refers to accidents in mines and describes diseases related to the long exposure of feet to cold water in mines, as well as to the disease produced in the lungs by exposure to silica or quartz dusts.

Year 1500 to 1600 AD.

Industrial hygiene is surrounded by mysticism and mystery due to the influence of religion. it was believed that the mines were inhabited by demons and could be controlled by prayer and fasting.

16th century

Paracelsus
Son of a Swiss doctor. He worked for 5 years in a foundry and published a book called "of the trades and diseases of the mountain" with his observations on the risks of that industry. the book was plagued with erroneous conclusions, but warned about the toxicity of some metals and mercury and lead poisoning.

Vesalio
Go from autopsies and dissections in pigs to act on the human body.

Year 1700 D.C.

Bernardo ramazzini
Italian doctor. publishes the book: Morbis Artificum (death for art), 1700, which describes occupational diseases. It establishes as a question to your patients to diagnose the disease "to which work you are engaged", since it considered that there was a relationship between work and illness. considered the father of occupational medicine.

Year 1700 to 1800 D.C.

George Baker
It correctly attributes a type of lead colic used in the cider industry and gets it removed and replaced.

Year 1764

Giovanni Batista Morgagni
Introduces in the autopsy protocol "the profession practiced".
The industrial revolution begins and you go from manual work or manufacturing to factory production.

Percival Pott
Recognizes soot as the cause of a disease in the scrotum (cancer) gets in 1788 England approve a law on chimney cleaners.

Year 1790
Johan Peter Frank
It publishes in Austria its speech that talks about to: "the hunger and the disease are painted on the front of all the working class. it is recognized to the naked eye and anyone who has observed them will not call any of these people a free man."

Year 1802

Thomas Percival
It refers to a new disease called "factory fever," which was especially virulent in children who worked in factories and textile workshops. This concern leads the British government to enact the first European labor law, "the law of health and morals of apprentices".

Robert Owen
Cotton manufacturer in Great Britain. fight for the education and health of the workers in the factories.

Charles Turner Thackrah
British advanced scientist. Study industrial medicine. in 1831 he wrote a treatise of 200 pages referring to occupational medicine.

Humpry Davy
Collaborate in the description of those occupations that were causing tuberculosis (tuberculosis). participates in the development of the safety lamp for miners.

Year 1833

Factories Act
Created in England. First time a government is interested in the protection of workers. this law was more directed towards compensation for accidents than the control of causes. It is considered as the first legislation on the subject.

Year 1843

The French labor law prohibits the work of children under 8 years of age. Germany is the first European country where public and compulsory coverage of diseases (1883), accidents (1884) and disability (1889) would be achieved.

Year 1900

Alice Hamilton
American doctor. He dedicates a great part of his life to the health of workers. It is considered a pioneer in industrial health.

Year 1912

The first congress for the prevention of industrial accidents and industrial hygiene is held in Milan.

Year 1919

In the Treaty of Versailles, the O.I.T is founded.

Year 1950

At the Dublin conference, the O.I.T. and the O.M.S., define occupational health, as the set of activities that have the purpose of promoting and maintaining the highest level of physical, mental and social well-being among workers.
The OSHACT (Occupational Safety and Health Act), occupational safety and health law, is enacted in the United States. which is the most complete occupational safety and health treaty, and is used as a model in many countries.
Ancient Egypt, workers were considered as a simple "thing".
Fossilized human skeletons have been found in galleries of Egyptian mines, which suggest that these people died from accidents.
Later civilizations, such as Greco-Roman, began to worry about the problems caused by the work. Plato studied certain deformations of the human skeleton, characteristic of certain professions.
Fifteenth and sixteenth centuries complete works dedicated to work hygiene appear.
18th century, the Italian Ramazzini develops the medicine of work.

Europe

The prevention of accidents, as an organized activity, was first developed in England (1761).
It is regulated for the first time on the work, making it smoother, reducing the working day, creating inspection services, legislating on the age of the apprentices.
The example was soon followed by the other European nations. It was established as a rule that the worker, in addition to receiving a salary should be protected against accidents in the factory and diseases acquired in it.
In Paris, in 1883 the "association of industrialists against work accidents" was founded, which fulfills a function of advising and assisting in all health problems in the factories.
Other countries follow the example and found many institutions related to accident prevention.

United States
In 1867, in the state of Massachusetts, the positions of factory inspectors were created.
In 1877 the law on the protection of dangerous machines was enacted.
In 1911, the Workers' Compensation Law was created. in 1912, the birth of the national security council takes place.

Venezuela
Industrial safety was born with the mining law in 1909. In 1928 the first labor law was enacted, but the real law was born in 1936 with the promulgation of a labor law and its regulations. later other organisms are created: SSO in 1944.

Authors get paid when people like you upvote their post.
If you enjoyed what you read here, create your account today and start earning FREE STEEM!