Type of Fertilizer And Its Usability (Organic fertilizer & Inorganic Fertilizer)
Fertilizer is a material that is added to the soil or plant canopy to complement the availability of nutrients. Fertilizer material originally only comes from animal waste or residual weathering of plants and wood charcoal, but chemical fertilizers then developed and now also become the main choice for use in agriculture, The use of chemical fertilizers growing with the invention of calcium salt deposits in Germany in 1839.
Based on the type of fertilizer and its usefulness then the fertilizer can be classified in 3 main types of chemical or inorganic fertilizers, organic fertilizers and biological fertilizers. Inorganic fertilizers are also called chemical or artificial fertilizers are the kind of fertilizer made by the manufacturer by combining various chemicals in a certain percentage of nutrient content. Composition or percentage of chemicals in inorganic fertilizers tailored to the needs of soil and plants in general.
In contrast to inorganic fertilizers made from a mixture of chemicals, organic fertilizers made from the remains of living things are processed through decomposition or decomposition by bacteria decomposers. In addition to organic fertilizer, the farmers also use the second fertilizer after organic fertilizer that is biological fertilizer. This fertilizer contains biodegradable microorganisms useful for plants.
According to the type of nutrients it contains, inorganic fertilizers can be divided into two namely single fertilizer and compound fertilizer. In a single fertilizer, there is only one kind of nutrient elements in one type of fertilizer, on the contrary in a compound fertilizer, nutrients contained in more than one type. Nutrients selected for use in a single fertilizer are usually primary macro nutrients such as urea containing only nitrogen. In compound fertilizers, the nutrients used are adapted to the elements needed by plants, such as the diammonium phosphate containing nitrogen and phosphorus elements. The use of compound fertilizers is considered more practical because with only one use, the plant can be given various types of nutrients it needs.
Inorganic fertilizer is specifically to nourish the leaves and roots and differentiated into leaf fertilizer and root fertilizer. Some examples of leaf fertilizer are Gandasil B and D, Grow More and Vitabloom. This type of fertilizer is given by spraying. While root fertilizer is given by sprinkling on the ground so it will be absorbed by plant roots. Some examples of root manure are urea fertilizer which is a single fertilizer and NPK which is a kind of compound fertilizer.
In its use, inorganic fertilizers can be released quickly (fast release) or slow (slow release). Fast release fertilizer will release the nutrients quickly so sown to the ground and can be directly utilized by the plant. Some examples are urea, ZA and KCL. This type of fertilizer will quickly run out because not only will quickly be absorbed by plants, fertilizer is also faster to evaporate and washed by water.
Conversely, slow release fertilizer or so-called controlled release will be released gradually in accordance with the soil requirement, so the benefits obtained by the plant can last a long time with only one use of fertilizer, compared with fast release fertilizer. The slow release fertilizer combines chemical protection with mechanical techniques that allow it to be released in a controlled manner. Mechanical protection is provided by means of a fertilizer wrap made of polymer membranes, while chemical protection is carried out by mixing the fertilizer material using a chemical substance.
Some of the most preferred nutrients for inorganic fertilizers are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. For plants, the Nitrogen element is useful for stimulating overall growth, especially stems, branches and leaves. Nitrogen also plays a role in the formation of green leaves that are useful in the process of photosynthesis as well as in the formation of proteins, fats and various other organic compounds. Phosphorus for plants is useful in stimulating root growth especially in young plants. Phosphorus also acts as a precursor in the formation of various proteins, assimilation and respiration and accelerate the flowering and ripening of seeds and fruit. Just like the elements of nitrogen and phosphorus, for plants, the element of potassium also plays a role in the formation of proteins and carbohydrates. In addition to strengthening the plant so that leaves, flowers and fruit are not easily killed, potassium also plays a role in providing strength for plants during dealing with drought and disease.
Organic fertilizers partly or wholly derived from plants or animals that have been through the engineering process. The ingredients included in organic fertilizer are manure, compost, kascing, peat, grass aut and guano. Organic fertilizers can be either solids or liquids, which are used to supply organic materials in order to improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil.
Some people classify organic fertilizers in various types, either based on raw materials, methods of manufacture and form. Based on its raw materials, organic fertilizer can be made from animal waste, green foliage or mixture of both types of materials. Several types of organic fertilizer based on the method of manufacture is aerob and bokashi compost. While based on its form, organic fertilizer can be powder, liquid or granule or tablet.
Several types of materials become an option in the manufacture of organic fertilizers such as plants that become green manure, animal waste into manure, as well as organic materials into compost.
Green manure is a fertilizer derived from weathering plants, both crop residual plants and plants commonly used as fertilizer. Some examples of which are the types of leguminous or beans and azola or aquatic plants. These types of plants become an option because it is rich in nutrients, especially nitrogen content.