Packaging Technology - Pharmaceuticals

in #steemstem2 years ago

Packaging is defined as the collection of different components which surround the pharmaceutical product from the time of production until its use.

A Pharmaceutical Package container is an article or device which contains the Pharmaceutical Product and the container may or may not in direct contact with the product. The container which is designed for pharmaceutical purpose must be stable.
Ideal Qualities of a Pharmaceutical Package:
 It should have sufficient mechanical strength so as to withstand handling, filling, closing and transportation.  It should not react with the contents stored in it.  It should be of such shape that can be elegant and also the contents can be easily drawn from it.  It should not leach alkali in the contents.  The container should not support mold growth.  The container must bear the heat when it is to be sterilized.  The contents of container should not be absorbed by the container.  The material used for making the container should be neutral or inert.  Any part of the container or closure should not react with each other.  Closure should be of non-toxic nature and chemically stable with container contents.
Functions of Packaging

✓ Not leak nor allow diffusion and permeation. ✓ Strong enough to hold the contents during handling.

✓ Strong enough to hold the contents during handling.
➔ Light. ➔ Moisture. ➔ Oxygen. ➔ Biological contamination. ➔ Counterfeiting .
Product Identification: Packaging greatly helps in identification of products.
Product Protection: Packaging protects the contents of a product from spoilage, breakage, leakage, etc.
Facilitating the use of product: Packaging should be convenience to open, handle and use for the consumers


Product Promotion: Packaging is also used for promotional and attracting the attention of the people while purchasing.
Qualities of the Package
Consideration of the life history & the functions of the package shows that basic qualities are required.
Any package should afford protection to the contents & pharmaceutically, this is of great importance; indeed, in certain circumstances the life of the patient may depend upon it. Sometimes the form of the protection may be specified; for example, in legislation relating to poisons or to therapeutic substances or in the British Pharmacopoeia or British Pharmaceutical Codex.
The package must also give clear identification of the product at all stages & again, the life of the patient may depend on rapid & correct identification in emergencies. Certain products have labeling specifications in the British Pharmacopoeia, the British Pharmaceutical Codex, the British National Formulary & the British Veterinary Codex. Other are controlled by legislation affecting materials such as poisons, dangerous drugs, therapeutic substances, food & drugs & methylated spirits.


Often, the package is required to identify the manufacturer to the user by a characteristics house style.
Good presentation enhances the product & attracts the consumer during storage or display. In addition, the public can judge the product only by the appearance of the package, so that a dignified & professional will give confidence to the user.
The form of the package should be such that it offers convenience at all stages of its life history & the design of the package should be convenient for manufacture, for transport & storage & for use by the consumer.

The economics of packaging are of considerable practical importance; the package cost should be minimal, provided the previous qualities are not prejudiced . In particular, care should be taken to ensure that protection is not sacrificed simply to reduce package costs.
Hazards encountered by the package
Analysis of the many stages in the life history of a package shows that hazards can be divided into two main groups:
Mechanical hazards
Damage due to shock is usually caused by rough handling or dropping during transport, although it can result also from carelessness in use. Cushioning can be provided & a warning label may be useful.
Fragile items may be broken, or collapsible articles crushed by compression, the usual procedure then being to protect with a rigid outer package.
Soft articles, such as collapsible tubes, may be damaged by the sharp edges of other articles; protection can, again, be given by cushioning or a rigid outer.
Considerable vibration may occur during transport, especially with exported items. Damage may be external, such as the ‘scuffing’ of labels, but some products may be affected, as by the cracking of emulsions, abrasion of tablets, or segregation of mixed powder.
Environmental hazards
Environmental conditions encountered by the package are likely to vary considerably, especially in articles for expert to the tropics. In general, it is extremes of conditions that give rise to problems & this is especially true of fluctuating conditions

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