#科普#量子物理(8)

in steempress •  24 days ago  (edited)

托马斯·杨证明了光是一种波,麦克斯韦进一步论证了电磁波,爱因斯坦和之后的人证明了光是粒子组成的。20世纪初最有影响的观点是光是由波或粒子组成的。

女王说:“我像你这么大的时候,每天都会思考半小时。有时候还没吃早饭,我就已经相信了六件不可能的事情了!”

——《爱丽丝镜中奇遇记》

欢迎来到量子世界~

一个电子一个冲刺,被眼前的墙壁弹了回去,然后又冲向墙壁,这次成功的穿过了墙壁,这个行为叫“量子遂穿”。

在现实生活中,我们要成功穿过墙壁几率太太太低了,可能在成功以前,人早就试得骨折了。按皮格马利翁效应来说,你并不能够打心里相信穿过墙壁。

量子世界中量子遂穿的可能性大大提高了。

我们穿过墙壁后,看到了2个路口,在量子世界中若没有禁止皆为必须,所以没有必要去纠结走左边还是右边,你可以同时走左边和右边。这叫“叠加态原理”。

也就是说我不用纠结先看《失物之书》,还是先看《无可慰藉》,在量子世界里我先翻看起了《失物之书》,另一个我先翻看了《无可慰藉》。在这里所有的可能性都是同时存在,同时发生。

我们是看不见叠加态的。

薛定谔做了一个量子物理实验,目的是以宏观的视度来观测量子叠加态,也就是观测量子是波还是粒子,然后和宏观的猫联系一起,这样来求证量子的存在形式。

薛定谔把一只猫放在一个封闭的盒子里,使外面看不到盒子里面的情况。盒子里装了个有毒瓶子,还装了一个装置,这个装置有可能打破这个瓶子,使猫死亡。

图片来源:commons.wikimedia.org

装置是由量子现象控制,那么便没有什么猫要嘛死了,要嘛活着的问题。量子世界里不用做选择题,同时存在这猫死了、这猫活着,它处于生与死的叠加态。

而只要盒子打开,猫被我们看到,就只存在一种状态。这叫“叠加态塌缩”。

叠加态只会存在在我们观测到之前,只要我们一观测到,那么物体的叠加态就会塌缩。

盒子不打开,在量子世界中猫即生又死;盒子打开,在现实世界中,猫不是死了,就是活着。


Posted from Steem中文社区 : http://cnstm.org/blog/2019/10/29/%e7%a7%91%e6%99%ae%e9%87%8f%e5%ad%90%e7%89%a9%e7%90%86%ef%bc%888%ef%bc%89/


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