The Magazine - Science & Technology - Task #1 (EN - IT - ES - DE)

in #steempossible5 months ago (edited)

BrainNet
Brain-to-brain communication
through the Internet


We are only at the beginning, but BrainNet (A Multi-Person Brain-to-Brain Interface for Direct Collaboration Between Brains) https://arxiv.org/pdf/1809.08632, has shown that direct transmission between two or more brains is possible through modern non-invasive monitoring and stimulation tools.

What was the experiment of Linxing Preston Jiang, Andrea Stocco, Darby M. Losey, Justin A. Abernethy, Chantel S. Prat, Rajesh P. N. Rao?

Basically the brains of 3 people (but they could have been many more) were connected for each round of tests; two people were monitored using an Electro-Encephalogram (EEG) system that was interpreted in real time.
Based on what was detected in the two brains transmitters a signal was sent to a transcranial magnetic stimulation interface (TMS) to the third brain, ie information was transmitted from the two transmitters to the receiver digitizing the signal, sending it over the internet to a receiver that transformed it into transcranial magnetic stimulation.

The test, to check if this type of transmission worked, was basically a simplified version of Tetris.

The two transmitters saw a block before it began to fall, this had only two possibilities: to turn or not to turn and only one of the two choices made it fit correctly; in a nutshell the two transmitters had to decide whether to give an instruction to turn or not to turn the piece.
The receiver was completely unaware of the game, that is, he did not see the part of the screen with the pieces and had to decide whether to turn or not based on the stimulus he received through the TMS on the occipital cortex; he then takes a decision and in turn transmits it to the computer via an EEG interface.
The computer then turns the block or holds it in its original position based on the signal received from the brain of the receiver.

After this basic experiment, the researchers came up with an even more complex interaction.
In this second scenario, a feedback phase was added from the transmitters to the receiver, providing the latter with information about the fact that the message had arrived correctly and the expected decision had been taken or if the choice of the recipient was found to be incorrect.

These experiments were performed with 5 groups of 3 subjects with an average result of over 80% of exact decisions.

One of the most interesting variants of the test is that obtained by falsifying the information arriving from one of the two transmitters: the brain of the receiver, from the results and their historical succession, appears able to assess the reliability of incoming signals and learn to take them into account when making the final decision the rating of transmitters.

Although the experiment has as its object an extremely simple action, with only two possible choices and in a very restricted phenomenal universe, it is a first rather significant step in the direction of direct communication between brains.

In the experiment, standard EEG and TMS interfaces were used, Arduino-controlled LEDs, 8-channel digitizers, standard internet connections, normal personal computer, in a nutshell all easily found and easily interfaced devices.

Obviously we are still very far from a real brain 2 brain interface, but this experiment seems to pave the way for an entire class of experiments and future applications, laying the foundations for a non-verbal, non-visual but direct connection between brains, not necessarily with a 1:1 configuration.

What real prospects can be hypothesized for a future real brain/brain interface through internet?
An interface of this kind could potentially open up new communicative variants, open up new frontiers and foster communication and human collaboration, if one chooses, what is not obvious, an ethically correct use of new tools such as what can be hypothesized in light of the results of this experiment.

Meanwhile, new studies and new experiments of direct communication between brains will surely have as a side effect of providing a new scientific tool to increase knowledge about the functioning of the human brain.









Siamo solo all'inizio, ma BrainNet (A Multi-Person Brain-to-Brain Interface for Direct Collaboration Between Brains) https://arxiv.org/pdf/1809.08632, ha dimostrato che la trasmissione diretta tra due o più cervelli è possibile attraverso i moderni strumenti di monitoraggio e di stimolazione non invasivi.

In cosa è consistito l'esperimento di Linxing Preston Jiang, Andrea Stocco, Darby M. Losey, Justin A. Abernethy, Chantel S. Prat, Rajesh P. N. Rao?

Sostanzialmente sono stati messi in connessione i cervelli di 3 persone (ma avrebbero potuto essere molti di più) per ogni round di test; due persone erano monitorate tramite un sistema di Elettro Encefalogramma (EEG) che veniva interpretato in tempo reale.
In base a quanto rilevato nei due cervelli trasmettitori veniva inviato un segnale ad una interfaccia di stimolazione magnetica transcranica (TMS) al terzo cervello, veniva cioè trasmessa una informazione dai due trasmettitori al ricevente digitalizzando il segnale, inviandolo attraverso internet fino ad un apparecchio ricevitore che lo trasformava in una stimolazione magnetica transcranica.

Il test, per verificare se questo tipo di trasmissione funzionasse, era sostanzialmente una versione semplificata di Tetris.

I due trasmettitori vedevano un blocco prima che cominciasse a cadere, questo aveva solo due possibilità: girare o non girare e una sola delle due scelte lo faceva incastrare correttamente; in poche parole i due trasmettitori dovevano decidere se dare una istruzione di girare o di non girare il pezzo.
Il ricevente era completamente all'oscuro del gioco, cioè non vedeva la parte dello schermo con i pezzi e doveva decidere se girare oppure no in base allo stimolo che riceveva tramite il TMS sulla corteccia occipitale; prende quindi una decisione e la trasmette a sua volta al computer tramite una interfaccia EEG.
Il computer, quindi, gira il blocco o lo mantiene nella posizione originale in base al segnale ricevuto dal cervello del ricevente.

Dopo questo esperimento base, i ricercatori hanno escogitato una interazione ancora più complessa.
In questo secondo scenario è stata aggiunta una fase di feedback dai trasmettitori al ricevente, fornendo a quest'ultimo l'informazione riguardo al fatto che il messaggio era arrivato in modo corretto ed era stata presa la decisione attesa oppure se la scelta del ricevente era risultata errata.

Questi esperimenti sono stati effettuati con 5 gruppi di 3 soggetti con un risultato medio di oltre l'80% di decisioni esatte.

Una delle varianti più interessanti del test è quella ottenuta falsando appositamente le informazioni in arrivo da uno dei due trasmettitori: il cervello del ricevente, dai risultati e dalla loro successione storica, appare in grado di valutare l'affidabilità dei segnali in arrivo e imparare a tenerne conto nell'effetuare la decisione finale il rating dei trasmettitori.

Sebbene l'esperimento abbia per oggetto una azione estrememente semplice, con solo due possibili scelte e in un universo fenomenico molto ristretto, si tratta di un primo passo piuttosto significativo nella direzione della comunicazione diretta tra cervelli.

Nell'esperimento sono state usate interfacce standard EEG e TMS, LED controllati da Arduino, digitalizzatori a 8 canali, connessioni internet standard, normali persanal computer, in poche parole tutti apparati facilmente reperibili e facilmente interfacciabili.

Ovviamente siamo ancora molto lontani da una vera e propria interfaccia cervello/cervello, ma questo esperimento sembra aprire la strada ad una intera classe di esperimenti e di future applicazioni, ponendo le basi per una collaborazione remota non verbale, non visuale bensì diretta tra cervelli, non necessariamente con una configurazione 1:1.

Quali reali prospettive si possono ipotizzare per una futura reale interfaccia cervelle/cervello attraverso internet?
Una interfaccia di questo genere potenzialmente potrebbe aprire inedite varianti comunicative, aprire frontiere inedite e favorire la comunicazione e la collaborazione umana, sempre che si scelga, cosa non scontata, un utilizzo eticamente corretto di nuovi strumenti come quello che si può ipotizzare alla luce dei risultati di questo esperimento.

Nel frattempo, nuovi studi e nuovi esperimenti, di comunicazione diretta tra cervelli sicuramente avranno come effetto collaterale di fornire un nuovo strumento scientifico per aumentare le consocenze sul funzionamento del cervello umano.


Solo estamos al principio, pero BrainNet (Una interfaz de cerebro a cerebro para varias personas para Colaboración directa entre cerebros) https://arxiv.org/pdf/1809.08632, ha demostrado que la transmisión directa entre dos o más cerebros es posible a través de herramientas modernas de monitoreo y estimulación no invasivas.

¿Cuál fue el experimento de Linxing Preston Jiang, Andrea Stocco, Darby M. Losey, Justin A. Abernethy, Chantel S. Prat, Rajesh P. N. Rao?

Básicamente, se conectaron los cerebros de 3 personas (pero podrían haber sido muchas más) para cada ronda de pruebas; Dos personas fueron monitoreadas utilizando un sistema de electroencefalograma (EEG) que fue interpretado en tiempo real.
Según lo que se detectó en los dos "transmisores" cerebrales, se envió una señal a una interfaz de estimulación magnética transcraneal (TMS) al tercer cerebro, es decir, la información se transmitió desde los dos transmisores al receptor digitalizando la señal, enviándola por internet a un receptor que la transformó en estimulación magnética transcraneal.

La prueba, para verificar si este tipo de transmisión funcionaba, era básicamente una versión simplificada de Tetris.

Los dos transmisores vieron un bloque antes de que comenzara a caer, esto tenía solo dos posibilidades: girar o no girar y solo una de las dos opciones lo hizo encajar correctamente; en pocas palabras, los dos transmisores tuvieron que decidir si dar una instrucción para girar o no girar la pieza.
El receptor desconocía completamente el juego, es decir, no veía la parte de la pantalla con las piezas y tenía que decidir si giraba o no en función del estímulo que recibió a través del TMS en la corteza occipital; luego toma una decisión y, a su vez, la transmite a la computadora a través de una interfaz EEG.
Luego, la computadora gira el bloque o lo mantiene en su posición original en función de la señal recibida del cerebro del receptor.

Después de este experimento básico, a los investigadores se les ocurrió una interacción aún más compleja.
En este segundo escenario, se agregó una fase de retroalimentación desde los transmisores al receptor, proporcionando a este último información sobre el hecho de que el mensaje había llegado correctamente y se había tomado la decisión esperada o si la elección del destinatario era incorrecta.

Estos experimentos se realizaron con 5 grupos de 3 sujetos con un resultado promedio de más del 80% de las decisiones exactas.

Una de las variantes más interesantes de la prueba es la obtenida al falsificar la información que llega de uno de los dos transmisores: el cerebro del receptor, a partir de los resultados y su sucesión histórica, aparece capaz de evaluar la fiabilidad de las señales entrantes y aprender a tenerlas en cuenta al realizar la calificación final de transmisores.

Aunque el experimento tiene como objeto una acción extremadamente simple, con solo dos opciones posibles y en un universo fenomenal muy restringido, es un primer paso bastante significativo en la dirección de la comunicación directa entre cerebros.

En el experimento, se utilizaron interfaces EEG y TMS estándar, LED controlados por Arduino, digitalizadores de 8 canales, conexiones a Internet estándar, persanal de computadora normal, en pocas palabras, todos los dispositivos fácilmente disponibles y fácilmente interconectables.

Obviamente, todavía estamos muy lejos de una interfaz cerebro / cerebro real, pero este experimento parece allanar el camino para toda una clase de experimentos y aplicaciones futuras, sentando las bases para una conexión no verbal, no visual pero directa entre cerebros, no necesariamente con una configuración 1:1.

¿Qué perspectivas reales se pueden plantear para una futura interfaz cerebro / cerebro real a través de iternet?
Una interfaz de este tipo podría abrir nuevas variantes comunicativas, abrir nuevas fronteras y fomentar la comunicación y la colaboración humana, si se elige, lo que no es obvio, un uso éticamente correcto de nuevas herramientas como lo que se puede hipotetizar a la luz de los resultados de este experimento

Mientras tanto, nuevos estudios y nuevos experimentos de comunicación directa entre cerebros seguramente tendrán como efecto secundario proporcionar una nueva herramienta científica para aumentar el conocimiento sobre el funcionamiento del cerebro humano.













Wir stehen erst am Anfang, aber BrainNet (Ein Multi-Person-Brain-to-Brain-Interface für Direkte Zusammenarbeit zwischen Gehirnen) https://arxiv.org/pdf/1809.08632 hat gezeigt, dass die direkte Übertragung zwischen zwei oder mehr Gehirnen durch moderne nicht-invasive Überwachungs- und Stimulationsinstrumente möglich ist.

Was war das Experiment von Linxing Preston Jiang, Andrea Stocco, Darby M. Losey, Justin A. Abernethy, Chantel S. Prat und Rajesh P. N. Rao?

Grundsätzlich waren die Gehirne von 3 Personen (aber es hätten auch viel mehr sein können) für jede Testrunde verbunden; Zwei Personen wurden mit einem Elektro-Enzephalogramm-System (EEG) überwacht, das in Echtzeit interpretiert wurde.
Auf der Grundlage dessen, was in den beiden "Sendern" des Gehirns festgestellt wurde, wurde ein Signal an eine transkranielle Magnetstimulationsschnittstelle (TMS) zum dritten Gehirn gesendet, dh Informationen wurden von den beiden Sendern an das übertragen Empfänger, der das Signal digitalisiert und über das Internet an einen Empfänger sendet, der es in transkranielle Magnetstimulation umwandelt.

Der Test, um zu prüfen, ob diese Art der Übertragung funktioniert, war im Grunde eine vereinfachte Version von Tetris.

Die beiden Sender sahen einen Block, bevor er zu fallen begann, dies hatte nur zwei Möglichkeiten: sich zu drehen oder nicht zu drehen und nur eine der beiden Möglichkeiten machte es passend; Kurz gesagt, die beiden Sender mussten sich entscheiden, ob sie eine Anweisung zum Wenden gaben oder nicht.
Der Empfänger war sich des Spiels überhaupt nicht bewusst, das heißt, er sah den Teil des Bildschirms mit den Teilen nicht und musste sich aufgrund des Stimulus, den er durch das TMS auf die Hinterhauptkortikalis erhielt, entscheiden, ob er sich umdrehen wollte oder nicht. Anschließend trifft er eine Entscheidung und überträgt sie über eine EEG-Schnittstelle an den Computer.
Der Computer dreht dann den Block oder hält ihn in seiner ursprünglichen Position basierend auf dem Signal, das vom Gehirn des Empfängers empfangen wird.

Nach diesem grundlegenden Experiment entwickelten die Forscher eine noch komplexere Wechselwirkung.
In diesem zweiten Szenario wurde eine Rückmeldungsphase von den Sendern zum Empfänger hinzugefügt, um diesen mit Informationen über die Tatsache zu versorgen, dass die Nachricht korrekt und empfangen wurde Die erwartete Entscheidung wurde getroffen, oder die Auswahl des Empfängers wurde als falsch befunden.

Diese Experimente wurden mit 5 Gruppen von 3 Probanden mit einem durchschnittlichen Ergebnis von über 80% der exakten Entscheidungen durchgeführt.

Eine der interessantesten Varianten des Tests ist die, die durch Fälschung der von einem der beiden Sender eingehenden Informationen erhalten wird: Das Gehirn des Empfängers wird anhand der Ergebnisse und ihrer historischen Abfolge angezeigt Sie können die Zuverlässigkeit eingehender Signale beurteilen und lernen, diese bei der endgültigen Bewertung von Sendern zu berücksichtigen.

Obwohl das Experiment eine extrem einfache Handlung zum Ziel hat, mit nur zwei Möglichkeiten und in einem sehr begrenzten phänomenalen Universum, ist es ein erster bedeutender Schritt in Richtung einer direkten Kommunikation zwischen Gehirnen.

In dem Experiment wurden Standard-EEG- und TMS-Schnittstellen verwendet, Arduino-gesteuerte LEDs, 8-Kanal-Digitizer, Standard-Internetverbindungen, normales Computer-Persanal - alles auf den Punkt gebracht, alles leicht zu findende und leicht anzuschließende Geräte.

Natürlich sind wir immer noch sehr weit von einer realen Schnittstelle zwischen Gehirn und Gehirn entfernt, aber dieses Experiment scheint den Weg für eine ganze Klasse von Experimenten und zukünftigen Anwendungen zu ebnen und den Grundstein für eine nonverbale, nicht visuelle, aber direkte Verbindung zwischen dem Gehirn zu legen. nicht unbedingt mit einer 1:1 Konfiguration.

Welche realen Perspektiven können für eine zukünftige reale Gehirn-Gehirn-Schnittstelle über das Internet angenommen werden?
Eine solche Schnittstelle könnte potenziell neue kommunikative Varianten eröffnen, neue Grenzen öffnen und die Kommunikation und die menschliche Zusammenarbeit fördern, wenn man, was nicht offensichtlich ist, einen ethisch korrekten Einsatz neuer Instrumente wählt, wie das, was angesichts der Ergebnisse angenommen werden kann dieses Experiments.

In der Zwischenzeit werden neue Studien und neue Experimente zur direkten Kommunikation zwischen den Gehirnen sicherlich den Nebeneffekt haben, ein neues wissenschaftliches Instrument bereitzustellen, um das Wissen über die Funktionsweise des menschlichen Gehirns zu erweitern.



edited by @ilnegro


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First: thank you for the multi-lingual approach. Talk about brain-to-brain connections :)

Then: My first response is to see both a sinister potential and, as you suggest at the end, a potential for good.

I'll start with the good: Imagine being able to get past physical barriers in communication. I'm thinking of people who have limitations of speech or movement. They are so often misunderstood and underestimated because no one can understand them. Wouldn't it be wonderful to skip those barriers and go straight to the brain. Imagine the doors that would be opened for those who are 'locked inside' bodies that don't work.

Now I'll go to the negative: my imagination tells me this can be a tool for those who want to understand thoughts and intentions that perhaps I might want hidden. Or even, it might allow those hostile entities to influence my thoughts and behaviors. I'm thinking of bad actors (like governments 😎)

Obviously, these possibilities (negative and positive) are just distant ideas. But, what if?

Fascinating study. Thank you for sharing.

Hi @agmoore2 - my name is @themagazine and I am sending you 0.5 ReCoin because you contribute with a interesting comment to https://steempeak.com//steempossible/@themagazine/the-magazine-science-and-technology-task-1-en-it-es-de. Thanks a lot!

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I don't really get it! How are they connected????

Sorry not to be so clear.
Let me try again.
There is one or more, in this experiment exactly two person, with an EEG, the signal from EEG of these two person is digitalized and transmitted using a personal computer through internet to another PC that, based on this signal, using a TMS, stimulate the brain of the third person.
This person has also an EEG that get the reaction of his brain, convert it in an action, to rotate or not the tetris brick falling down.
Let me know if it's clear now.
@ilnegro

Thank you. I got it. Next time you can try to explain it a bit more on this way, maybe with a little self-made drawing. Makes it more easy for quickly getting to the take home message and for curators it is much easier to give you good votes. Best regards Chapper

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