As one British adventurer became the king of the cannibals
Above the river fortress cannibals-Iban smoke is from the cannon. European frigate has done his job, and the attack on some naked savages catch others. These, too, sacrificed people and collect their heads, but they are British subjects. Following them in a fortified village burst armed Malays, Indians and a dozen Englishmen. Over the course of the battle personally watching Great White Raja, who is also an adventurer and Bisexual named James Brooke. All this - weekdays Sarawak kingdom.
It looked like James Brooke.
James Brooke was to become an icon for all of the white racists and imperialists. Just imagine: a white officer, salt of the earth, sailed on a single ship in a random country of savages and there became sovereign beloved king. He then fought in the country of slavery, piracy and pacified the tribes of cannibals. He allowed a large part of the issues in a peaceful way, be used against naive cunning locals and unknown to them superweapon - the economy and diplomacy.
And look typical subjects of James Brooke.
However, in the biography of the ideal candidate for the position of the icon Aryan two questionable spots. Firstly, it is still unknown his sexual orientation: some said that he was castrated by shrapnel, others that he was a homosexual, and it is known that he has at least one illegitimate son. If the uncertainty in the light preferences to forgive him, something warm and almost gentle attitude toward savages Victorians it was difficult to understand. Brooke thought subjects cute, naive idiot, almost British, just practicing human sacrifice and to walk without clothes.
James Brooke, a British citizen and likeable enough
James Brooke was born near Calcutta in 1803. His father was an officer of the East India Company mediocre, but the money is there rowing shovel, so that was enough and son studying in the UK, and a good legacy. When Brooke Jr. was 12 years old, he was sent to England to learn the science and become a gentleman in a closed resort. James, used to heat and vociferously liking of India, once disliked and prudish British and fucking home, and dim the sun, and hazing closed schools for young noblemen. He rebelled, ran away from boarding houses, and as soon as he turned 16, immediately sailed with Albion, hoping to forget him. He was destined to return - but already in the title of "His Majesty" and better known as the White Rajah, the lord of the Kingdom of Sarawak.
Like any 16-year-old boy, James Brooke decided to go by the most direct and clear way, and nearly returned to India and joined the British army excellent. That, however, was not so beautiful: a sudden it turned out that there may be a war and send. James took part in the Anglo-Burma campaign and was severely wounded in 1825. As it was he was mutilated, it remains a mystery, but against the background of the White Rajah has never been married, the evil tongues said that in Burma, James left his genitals. However, this did not prevent the same people say that it spawn a lot of bastards.
James Brooke on reception at the Sultan of Brunei.
Hardly having come to himself, Brooke decided that enough of the work on which it all the time trying to kill. He goes into the world of colonial trade and becomes risky businessman or, more honest, simply inept merchant. Floating in China and traveling to India, he realizes that there are chances of being killed if not barely higher than in the army, and came out even less. Owl in the world without connections was a bad idea. Soon, his father gives his soul to God and leaves his son 30,000 pounds inheritance. In those days it was a smart amount. On it could be a year to show off in high society of London or buy any city in India. James Brooke decided to bet on a grand scale: all or nothing.
He buys a 142-ton schooner "Royalist" with guns, nice wooden Eros on the nose and the same team notorious adventurers. What does he do next? Floats on Borneo, a place known for its instability and explosion hazard even in Asia standards. There, he offers his services to the local Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II.
Sultan would be fabulously wealthy and powerful, his arm stretched over one of the most delicious pieces of the region. But Omar was a political dwarf - a large part of the country, inhabited by wild Dayak, he did not control, but sent to punitive mission and tried to consolidate power by force, which he lacked.
James appears in the audience of the ruler can be very useful. The Dayaks, the local tribes of warriors from the jungle, once again got their spears and blowguns with poison darts and revolted. In addition, it seems, the second Malays and Chinese in the north of Borneo. A little more, and useless head of His Majesty would be transformed into an amulet of some second-rate shaman.
Fortress Attack Dayak.
Brooke assured that right, and Omar was willing to promise any rewards. What was the hope that the team has one ship to quell the uprising of cannibals, who were very, very upset and went on the hunt for their heads? In such a situation at all surprising that the Sultan has not promised to do his heir to the British. When in 1841 James returned with a victory, the Second Saifuddin had to fulfill his part of the contract and to appoint the winner of the Raja of his empire, which is about a king-vassal status.
White Raja bears civilization and rebuilding "City Cat"
Now it seems completely incomprehensible how the Brook suppressed the uprising. His strength would not be enough even for something to grab some fortified village. In addition, it was not just about the Dayak, but their most irrepressible branches Iban. These warriors distinguished by the fact that living in Stone Age managed to become pirates and thunderstorms Asian courts.
They worked on the seasons: six months cut in the jungle neighbors and collected their heads, half swam the seas to strange galleys and took the boarding ships. Iban tribe hated absolutely everything, who lived in Borneo, and you can imagine how bad was the Sultan Omar if their revolt were joined by local Malays, Indians and even the Chinese.
James made the impossible: he has settled almost all the world, not too lingering in battle with the rebellious. Somehow he was able to play off the different tribes and nations, and those who run up increasingly likely to rein in using guns and rifles. It is possible that the urban population saw in it the hope of a British protectorate, and decided that it is better to their raja will be white than the greedy and stupid.
The war with Iban peoples
So, James Brooke received from the Sultan a small piece of land, complete autonomy and high rank. The boundaries of Sarawak received the kingdom have not been determined - here, in the north of Borneo solve all the geography and the will of the Dayaks of the jungle. Brook took advantage of this in order to start the expansion. After all, if his country has no borders, it is possible to take the nearby land as much as you like, right? The only real obstacle steel ridges, which were in the depths of the island.
White Rajah set to work with energy, which would be enough for ten politicians. Reforms, modernization, construction of trading posts, the establishment of diplomatic ties, the construction of forts and military drill of the local population - all this had to be done immediately and easily. His capital Brooke did Kuchin, whose name can be translated as "Cat City". From the poor, second-class port city became a pearl of Borneo, full of statues of cats and buildings in British colonial style.
But the main trump card appears in the arms of Brooke that none of the local beat can not afford. The success of the hero noticed most of London. Sarawak was immediately taken under the protection of Britain, and James gave carte blanche to the emergency call of the imperial army. The following year, the White Rajah dropped a chance to use this service. Dayak could prismirit but Malay nobles still hoping for a rematch. As soon as the revolt was suppressed by one, as the beginning of a new, and Sultan Omar was again in danger.
Brooke used this situation in the best way: he called on Borneo large detachment of British troops, who arrived directly from China. rebel forces were quickly dispelled, and Omar had to give a reward Sarawak complete independence.
Flexing muscles produced an excellent effect. Sultan of Brunei realized that was the miserable rag doll in the hands of the British. On the other hand, if they do not, it would have been twice this year beheaded own subjects.
James Brooke and his dark side
Brooke was too bright personality and regulations is too long to include subjects and does not appear envious of a series of strange rumors incriminating. White Raja was never married and is survived by his heir, so that many accused him of misogyny and homosexuality. Confirmation that Brooke tossed himself, in one of the diaries mention of a prince of Borneo, "My love for him was deeper than anyone you may be." On another occasion he says that a certain Charles Grant, a young nobleman 16 years old, "replied to him in return."
But we must make allowances for the XIX century and a very emotional way of expressing that distinguishes James. In addition, Brooke loved the novels of Jane Austen and often tried to speak and write as her heroes. Funny that he read her book even during the raid on the fortress headhunters. After all, is not the same adventure novels he was reading - his own life and so full swing.
Another wave of rumors contradicts the first, and according to them, His Majesty has managed to make some bastards who carefully concealed. There is reason to believe that he had at least one son. A mysterious young man lived in England under a different name, and lived a secretive life, until one day randomly surfaced that his real name - George Brooke, a real place of birth - Sarawak.
James Brooks in old age.
Adding the first and second, many (including some investigators) came to the conclusion that an incredibly energetic and eccentric James Brooke was generally bisexual. This is evidenced by some ambiguous (like everything else in this story) record since his university pores.
Sarawak after James Brooke
In 1868, the White Rajah, who survived several heart attacks and died. Quietly, peacefully and already rather tired of the oppression of his crown and all these adventures. The throne passed to his nephew, Charles Anthony Johnson, who officially took the name crowned uncle. Almost always, it happens that after the brilliant monarch came to power a fool, a tyrant and a spender, but Brooke has not happened: the two subsequent rulers were businesslike, savvy and whiskered men.
Anthony Charles Brooke, the second White Rajah.
Charles Brooke of Sarawak has done for almost the same as James. When it finally managed to solve the problem of excessive and cruel rituals of Dayak militancy. Charles pacified tribes genocide and sophisticated diplomacy and cunning. The troops of the new White Raja steal or capture key leaders and elders of the Dayak and blackmailed them with the help of tribes. So Sarawak rid of the habit of sacrifice and hunting for their heads. The whole area yesterday cannibals voluntarily joined the possessions of Charles, forcing the Sultans of Borneo fall in impotent rage.
Second Rajah was also a very lucky: conducting exploration, he discovered that his possessions are full of oil and other minerals. Wealth themselves were in the hands, but required great effort. Charles struck in the fight against pirates, finally decided the issue of slavery and built railway - a real enlightened gentleman.
Weiner Charles Brooke, the White Rajah third.
After the death of Charles Anthony in 1917 Sarawak went to his son, Charles Weiner Brooke. Third White Rajah was raised by strict canons and evardianskoy Victorian morality, learned not in Cambridge, and after a volunteer went to the front of the First World under a false name. Back in Sarawak has a real British gentleman and a veteran, he also took up the matter of energy, which could boast of only Brookie.
Charlie Weiner spent upgrading. There were industrial enterprises and Sarawak could boast that the standard of living here has been significantly higher than in neighboring countries. Everything was sedately and nobly, until in 1941 the flames did not spread to the World even here. The island was captured by the Japanese, the monarch was forced to flee to Australia, and the country has stayed under occupation until the 1945.. The last White Rajah did not return, and by agreement with Britain gave her the right to their land. Sarawak remained a colony of the Empire until 1963, when its residents have not decided that enough was enough with their European masters and became citizens of Malaysia.
Once James Brooke sailed to Borneo in search of his fortune, and he did not have anything other than a ship, a sword and a pair of dozens of sailors. He had the dubious fortune to become the ruler of the country of cannibals, but the descendants of the colony, he left a promising oil and prosperous capital. It is hard to recall the hero, the incredible luck which so well would be supplemented by the cunning fox. And he just loved the book and dreamed of adventures.