innovation of Steem's blockchain block scheduling system, designed to stop spam transactions and converge within 3 seconds also enables the fastest blockchain transaction achieved to date. But eventually the number of users will grow to the point where this limit is exceeded.
The simple fact is that even if all users were on the same gigabit LAN with all the witnesses there is a point at which you can't add users.
Increasing Throughput Slows Convergence
To enable a greater throughput in the system you have to make a sacrifice in increasing the time to finding consensus.
In switching/routing systems this is called convergence, in blockchain it is called finding consensus. Consensus is when the amount of nodes agreeing on new added data is to the point it is said to be the "main chain". Convergence means all known possible routes are available on all routers, that no existing path or endpoint cannot be reached after it has been added.
Of course there is a necessary delay between transaction posting and it being canonical.
Comparison between Steem and Bitcoin
The Bitcoin blockchain is ad-hoc, broadcasts and replication propagate in mostly random directions, and as they are confirmed, they become confirmed by more nodes. This is why it can take anywhere from 10 to 90 minutes to join onto the main chain.
Steem transactions are faster because unlike Bitcoin, miners do not create blocks and confirm transactions, only new tokens. New blocks are made in 3 seconds. In fact, because of this tight schedule it is difficult to distribute mining power, for each miner account outside of a small, fast network (maybe), and each node requires the miner account master key. This was done in part to stop botnet miners working on the Steem blockchain.
But mining is deprecated in Steem. Witnesses are the important nodes.
What is a Witness?
A witness is a full node that certifies transactions (confirmations) and keeps the complete blockchain to ensure all new transactions are consistent with the canonical chain.
This chain is discovered and is generally within 9 seconds of the latest transactions. Sometimes Witnesses miss their turn to make a block. More rarely, two witnesses might miss a block in a sequence. Very rarely three in a row.
Distributing Witness Workload
Currently, there is a 21 stage schedule that synchronises all witnesses so they produce new blocks on a regular cycle. The election for Witnesses assigns the first 19, one is randomly selected from the runners up, and then one more, which I forget exactly how it is chosen.
Witnesses thus take turns being randomly chosen for the next time slot, and maintain the regular heartbeat of the network.
Currently the pattern of workload distribution is a single main chain. It is basically a ring-buffer, dithered by randomising the positions in the sequence to reduce the ability to use predictive attacks.
But if the network is to scale, it has to break his into multiple groups. The new data should pass through a multi-stage process of integrating data into the consensus. So to achieve this, the schedule used to have just one line, now we want to break it down adaptively into multiple parallel paths.
The result of increased throughput of the network is that there will be a faster rate of generation of new blocks. Scaling the network will require it to allow the careful reduction of data that must be carried by nodes.
Association Analysis and Consensus Account Delegation
The accounts in Steem are recognised to be cost-generating entities. Bitcoin charges by transaction, which raises the minimum transaction. The transactions cost according to the size of the data, and the demand for transaction processing. Steem instead uses a rate limiter, and each account can only get transactions processed as long as they don't exceed a moving average all nodes may not exceed.
In Steem, it is a tracked number on every user account, the size of the data each node pushes out for transaction processing.
So already it is a design principle that user accounts are the active entities. Acknowledging that they both cost and increase the value of the Steem economy, transactions are not charged for but simply you may not spam the network.
So, as point one in considering how to parallelise the network processing capacity, you would need to monitor who is paying who. You could visualise this as a cloud that you can continuously regenerate that plots a network showing the nodes that associate, and this will show you who does not.
From this map you can then instead of centralising it, break it up in accordance with the moving average of the total network load. When correlating scatter plots, it is relatively simple to apply a formula that finds one, two, three or more cluster locii. By this I mean, that the closer a node is to his point, it can be less replicated (as quickly) to other cluster locii.
A picture can help explain this:
The green circles are the nodes, their distance from each other is closer the more transacions with each other, the red lines I draw between distant points creates what you can see will generate crisscrossing lines which centre around a midpoint. Then in black I show the single center versus the dual center.
These graphs can be generated by any node with complete blockchains that are correct at the last transaction considered. These patterns allow you to schedule instead two, three, or more parallel network segments, or making it possible for the network to adapt to high load by splitting into more segments, in a way that can become itself part of a consensus.
The witnesss can then delegate multiple parallel processing paths and in the background they can synchronise blocks agreed by network consensus to be canonical though they cover diverging fragments of the whole.
But Wait, There's More!
Next to this, with our transaction associativity graph, you can break it down more. Specifically, you can create a new class of nodes whose job is to distribute he load of client queries. Perhaps there is a need for a name for this. Intermediaries.
The accuracy of their data must be tested and certified in such a way that it is nearly impossible for them to cheat. So, the Intermediaries will be subject to routine queries by Witnesses that know the right answer to every query.
The Purpose of Intermediaries
Intermediaries allow the constructive participation of part time and small nodes to the network. They can apply tentative confirmations to transactions as well as answer any query for data relating o an account.
Intermediaries basically only carry data from a subset of accounts. The domain they cover is generated by the network consensus associativity graph. They cannot be witnesses, but they can preconfirm and enable two account holders to know the transaction is valid, and then he transaction will propagate into the nearest network centre as dictated by the Consensus Distribution Graph.
By making the calculation of a network associativity graph part of the global network consensus, the distribution for parallelisation becomes possible to agree on by the network. By allowing non authoritative but certified preconfirmation, transactions can be made secure without hem immediately being on the canonical chain. And these nodes can handle queries, which means less retrieval and more certification for Witnesses.
As far as the change it create to Steem the two parts, the associative graph and parallelisation merely change the schedule to allow more than one witness to make a block every 3 seconds.
The Intermediaries are in part to increase the amount of contact surface between users and the network, but also to separate more the job of reading and writing to the database.
As a part of Intermediary codebase, also, they can function simply as caches for a user on their own machine, and build a cache of relevant data. The cache function would allow faster retrieval of blockchain data for users, as Intermediaries can give a less authoritative confirmation of a transaction.
I think the graph analysis algorithm I described will be the more interesting to the Steem devs. Intermediaries span between apps and caches are a client developer concern more. This is just to point at where the work should and probably will be done.
We can't stop here! This is Whale country!
Loki was born in Australia, now is wandering Amsterdam again after 9 months in Sofia, Bulgaria. IT generalist, physics theorist, futurist and cyber-agorist.
Loki's life mission is to establish a secure, distributed layer atop the internet, and enable space migration, preferably while living in a beautiful mountain house somewhere with a good woman, and lots of farm animals and gardens, where he can also go hunting and camping.
"I'm a thoughtocaster, a conundrummer in a band called Life Puzzler. I've flipped more lids than a monkey in a soup kitchen, of the mind."
- Xavier, Renegade Angel
All images in the above post are either original from me, or taken from Google Image Search, filtered for the right of reuse and modification, and either hotlinked directly, or altered by me