Institutional Discrimination (part 2): GENDER STRATIFICATION
Gender inequality is still prevailing today. And this global problem resides within the fabric of our society. Creating a culture of Stereotype where our society assigns gender roles which define how women and men should think and behave.
Although there have been evident signs of progress, there are still many alarming issues that prevail regarding gender discrimination. We need to eradicate ‘discrimination’ in its entirety, not just as per the convenience of one half of the section as a fundamental step in both human development and economic progress.
This article explores the discrimination of men and hopes to open doors for wider perspective.
Major Gender Difference
Men and women express themselves differently. Women are expected to be emotional while men “should manage and suppress their emotions”.
Masculinity in our culture encourages men to engage in many high-risk behaviors and are associated with the term “aggressive and assertive”. Society has reserved and categorized this masculinity to be only associated to men and the femininity to only women.
Sexism limits the talents and ambitions of both men and women. Gender shapes our interest and beliefs about our own abilities, guiding areas of study and, eventually, career choices.
Gender roles affect the way family life is built and maintained. Due to the stereotype that males have authority, it is looked down when a man is a stay-at-home husband and his wife works. A man is seen as weak and “unmanly” for not seeking a demanding job and letting his wife provide for the family. The need to be “macho” has resulted in men not even considering themselves victims or realizing the violence they’re experiencing is a crime.
Expectations force people to change who they are and shames them if they do not.
Men faces gender discrimination in their workplace too!
Certain professions have been deemed ‘male’ and some ‘female’. For instance, most cosmetics companies prefer hiring female over male employees because they believe that the former will be able to serve the customer’s needs better. This mindset limits the ability and capability of men and women. The stigma of an entire profession being reserved for a particular gender needs to change to explore the full potential of both sexes.
Men’s sexuality has been overestimated and miscalculated in every turn, especially when it comes to the workforce. If he receives a promotion or a public nod of approval for his hard work and dedication especially from a female boss, eyebrows are raised and by Monday, even the liftman will hear of his supposed ‘affair’ with the boss. We are in way over our heads when it comes to male-bias.
Violence against Men
“Research since the early 1970s has shown that men and women perpetrate violence against each other at roughly the same rates,”. “It’s an issue that’s largely been overlooked. And men have trouble finding help”.
Patriarchy labels men as violent in nature and hence they are linked with sexually aggressive actions and domestic violence. By doing so we fail to see that even men can be victims of these acts, often caused to them by other men and sometimes also by women.
Data from Home Office statistical bulletins and the British Crime Survey show that men made up about 40% of domestic violence victims each year between 2004-05 and 2008-09, the last year for which figures are available. In 2006-07 men made up 43.4% of all those who had suffered partner abuse in the previous year, which rose to 45.5% in 2007-08 but fell to 37.7% in 2008-09.
Based on the report from the U.S. Department of Justice in 2010:
•80% of cases in which police make an arrest for violent crime (murder, robbery and physical assault), the person arrested is a male
• 53% of all victims of violent crime are also men
“We don’t think of men as being capable of being victims or targets of abuse. We associate them with moral and physical strength and being protectors, which doesn’t align nicely with an image of someone being physically abused, psychologically manipulated or degraded.”
Said Emily M. Douglas, a professor and department head of Social Science & Policy Studies at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, whose research over the last 15 years has largely focused on partner violence against men.
Men are Victims, too!
Men are protected from sexual harassment under the Equality Act 2010
Although sexual harassment is often thought of as a man making sexual advances towards a woman, male employees can be the victims of sex discrimination under the Equality Act’s harassment provisions.
Higher Suicide Rate
Gender roles and stereotypes may seem innocent in today’s culture, however, these cause major effects on the current and future generations. They set limits on personality and mental health awareness of men and women. They try to force males and females into certain job categories and discriminate against those who do not conform.
Our culture tends to define masculinity in terms of aggression and violence. As aforementioned,
Trying to change or not accepting one’s personality can lead to internal conflict and unhappiness with the situation that the person is in. Depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem can be caused by oppression emotions or putting oneself in situations that one is not comfortable in.
Hence, results in higher crime rate committed by men and 4 times higher suicide rate than women.
It is impossible to let go of our stereotypes overnight, but let us all try. Let us not discriminate others on the basis of their sexual orientation. Let us not pressurize men to be strong. Let us not objectify women or men. Let us strive towards a healthier and more communicative and open society. Let us try to break free.
You can also read my recent post Institutional Discrimination: GENDER STRATIFICATION.
"This article hopes to Promote Gender Sensitivity and Gender Awareness. Recognizing and Accepting men's and women's strengths and weaknesses"
I'm very sorry for the delay of this article as my thesis study requires my full time and attention lately, but I'll do my best to manage my schedule. Thank you for understanding! :)
Shoutout to @precise for encouraging me to make this and for offering a new perspective. Daghang salamat!
TAKE IT LIKE A MAN: A STUDY OF MEN’S EMOTION CULTURE by Maria Tempenis Shelley