Causes of global warming
Causes of global warming
Global warming (English: Global Warming) is a gradual rise in the temperature of the Earth 's atmosphere ; as a result of changes in thermal energy transfers; the source of heat on the ground in the original is the sun 's rays that penetrate the atmosphere, and raise the Earth 's temperature, but because of human activities, especially The temperature of the surface of the earth in the past 100 years has increased by about 0.6 degrees Celisia,  Swedish scientist Svant Arhenius is the first to name the warming Heat on this phenomenon in 1896. 
The phenomenon of the glass house
Greenhouse Effect occurs because of the presence of gases in the atmosphere at high rates, called Greenhouse Gases. These gases play a major role in conserving the Earth's geothermal energy, absorbing part of the radiation infrared emitted from the surface, and keep in the atmosphere, leading to the Earth 's surface heating, and maintain a constant temperature in the normal average; ie up to 15 ° C, down to a level that makes life possible on it, Without these gases reached a temperature 18 ° C below zero. 
The higher greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have retained a larger amount of thermal energy in the atmosphere, and the Earth's surface temperature has been rising to affect all its processes and systems. Greenhouse gases include the following gases: 
Water vapor : Its concentration in the atmosphere depends on the amount of temperature and the weather, and may range between 0-4%.
Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ): Its importance is in the absorption of infrared radiation, and it may be approximately 0.038% in the atmosphere.
Nitrogen oxides: Nitrous oxide (N 2 O), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and nitrogen monoxide (NO) are included. Methane (CH 4 ):
Methane is produced from the decomposition of organic waste and digestion in animals. Ozone (O 3 ): This gas absorbs ultraviolet radiation.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC): used in refrigeration systems,in several industries, such as paints and pesticides.
Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ): produced from various combustion processes.
Causes of global warming
The causes of global warming can be summarized as follows:  
Changes in the earth's orbit around the sun: This results in a change in the amount of solar radiation reaching the earth. This factor is very important in climate change.
Volcanic eruptions: causing volcanic eruptions , emitting large amounts of dust and gases, and the gases emitted sulfur dioxide gas, and is the negative impact that it remains in the atmosphere large periods, Faihdz sunlight, the dust minutes emitted to affect the balance of the atmosphere, and spoke an increase in Earth temperature.
Gases from organic pollutants: These pollutants include livestock waste, especially cattle, sheep and chickens.
Air pollution: which contributes to air pollution in the rush of large amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, which percentage increases in the atmosphere.
Ozone depletion: The ozone layer is defined as an atmosphere in the atmosphere containing ozone gas and protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. The depletion of this layer is effective in causing global warming; gases emitted from industries, including CFCs, interact with a layer Ozone has holes in them, and the introduction of harmful gases to the ground through these holes, which leads to the obstruction, and global warming.
Deforestation: Deforestation reduces oxygen in the atmosphere and increases the proportion of carbon dioxide that plants benefit from photosynthesis .
Industrial progress: Fuel combustion results in very large amounts of greenhouse gases, such as: carbon dioxide, which absorbs infrared radiation and traps it on the ground, as well as many harmful gases emitted into the air; it mixes with other gases in the atmosphere , Forming toxic compounds that may damage the human respiratory system .
The use of chemical fertilizers : Chemical fertilizers are one of the most important factors in global warming because they contain several compounds that contribute to the phenomenon of greenhouse gases, such as: nitrogen oxides, which cause many holes in the ozone layer, and thus enter harmful ultraviolet rays to the earth through these holes; The temperature rises.
Effect of global warming
Global warming affects the planet seriously, as follows:   
Severe heat waves: Global warming increases the incidence of extreme heat waves, which negatively affect human health. A major loss occurs in the global economy. In 2003, European countries swept through a severe heat wave, killing 27,000 people and causing material losses of 14.7% Billion euros.
Flooding: Global warming melts large parts of the ice, raising sea level and causing flooding. This poses a threat to low islands and coastal cities. It is worth mentioning that thawing has caused sea and ocean levels to rise between 10-20m In the last century.
Drought occurs: drought increases the rate of forest fires .
Threat to living organisms: Global warming creates new conditions for the organism in the place where it lives, forcing it to adapt to it, such as temperature change. As a result of these changes, 25% of mammals and 12% of birds are threatened with extinction.
Ocean thermal circulation change: Salt thermal circulation is defined as the movement of water in the oceans according to their temperature-affected density, salinity, and global warming. The melting of the ice increases the rate of fresh water, stopping or slowing the thermal circulation.
How to reduce the effect of global warming
The effect of global warming can be reduced by several means and procedures, the most important of which are: 
The use of renewable energy sources for the production of electricity and heating of houses, in addition to the use of insulation materials in buildings; to reduce the loss of energy.
The use of energy-saving lamps. The use of fluorescent lamps can be replaced by the use of light bulbs, as they provide 66% of the energy used in ordinary lamps.
Minimize the use of nitrogen fertilizers by finding effective solutions to preserve the soil by feeding them the materials they need without the need for this type of fertilizer.
Encourage the cultivation of trees that consume carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
1- ↑ National Aeronautics and Space Administration, The Changing Climates , California: JPL, Page 2. Edited. 2- ↑ Clifford Rechtschaffen (2007), Creative Common Law Strategies for Protecting the Environment , United States: Environmental Law Institute, Page 109 Edited.
3- ↑ "Green House Effect" , Weather , Retrieved 2017-1-5. Edited.
4- ↑ US Geological Survey (2011), Science Education Handout , United States: USGS, Page 2. Edited.
5- ↑ M. Venkataramanan (2011), "Causes and effects of global warming", Indian Journal of Science and Technology , Issue 3, Folder 4, Page 226. Edited.
6- ↑ Ishita Haldar (2011), Global Warming: The Causes and Consequences , New Delhi: Mind Melodies, Page 15 Edited.
7- ↑ James Wang, Bill Chameides (2005), Global Warming's Increasingly Visible Impacts , Los Angeles: Environmental Defense, Page 3. Edited.
8- ↑ Ahmad El Zein, Nour Chehayeb (2015-3-11), "The Effect of Greenhouse Gases on Earth's Temperature", International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis , Issue 2, Folder 3, Page 74. Edited.
9- ↑ United Nations Environment Program (2003), How will global warming affect my world? , France: United Nations Environment Program, Page 4 Edited.
10- ↑ Union of Concerned Scientists (2003), Global Warming Solutions , United States: Union of Concerned Scientists and the Ecological Society of America, Page 1. Edited.
By: Shiraz Harz Allah