From some opinions about education put forward by education experts, it is generally agreed that education is given or held in order to develop all human potential in a positive direction.
With education, it is hoped that humans can increase and develop all of their natural potential or talents so that they become human beings who are relatively better, more cultured, and more humane.
In order for educational activities to be more directed, so that later can be efficient and effective, it requires a relatively complete and comprehensive understanding of human nature.
Talking about the nature of human beings brings us to face the central and fundamental questions about humans, that is and who is that human being? To answer this question, many efforts have been made, but apparently, these answers dialectically generate new questions, so that human understanding is still a problematic subject.
These parables give illustration how human issues are never ending till nowadays, since intellectuals in the age of Greece, Roman to today modern intellectual also post-modern even all philosophers on this earth to all scientists try to explain this human nature (Leahy, 1989). Yet, once again, the mystery of human has never completed on its ideas and explanations until nowadays, while it seems never be completed by human and moreover will never complete. That is mystery. This is the reflection of how God is Almighty and because of God‟s Greatness is beyond human mind. However so, several results of philosophers‟ ideas on human can be traced and examined and it always make us astonished. The more discovery regarding modern technology, it will widen our understanding and knowledge on human being. It is shown on the development of natural sciences or human sciences and social sciences that focuses itself on human. It is whether on biology, literary, anthropology and sociology. Many things depend on our conception about human nature (Stevenson & Haberman, 2001); for human individually, they are related with meaning and purpose of life, what we should do, what is allowed to be expected to reach, what human community vision we should build, even what change we expected (Baghi, 2014). In fact, human can be simplified to be two kinds of modus operandi; they are to be and to have as stated by Fromm (1987). Human in the pull of to be modus and to have modus A thought and a view of man has always contain and raise endless debate, moreover when the thought and the view comes from and because of different assumption and also because of different vision or point of view for example, between conservative and liberal communities. Humanitarian source
In other words, humans are still a mystery to themselves. Important information about humanity can be seen in a book called Humans, A Mystery, the work of Louis Leahy (1989).
In some literature, sources can be found in various formulations about humans. Man is a creature who is good at asking, even he questions himself, his existence and the world as a whole.
Much of Durkheim's work was concerned with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in modernity, an era in which traditional social and religious ties are no longer assumed, and in which new social institutions have come into being. His first major sociological work was The Division of Labour in Society (1893). Durkheim was also deeply preoccupied with the acceptance of sociology as a legitimate science. He refined the positivism originally set forth by Auguste Comte, promoting what could be considered as a form of epistemological realism, as well as the use of the hypothetico-deductive model in social science. For him, sociology was the science of institutions, if this term is understood in its broader meaning as "beliefs and modes of behaviour instituted by the collectivity" and its aim being to discover structural social facts. Durkheim was a major proponent of structural functionalism, a foundational perspective in both sociology and anthropology. In his view, social science should be purely holistic; that is, sociology should study phenomena attributed to society at large, rather than being limited to the specific actions of individuals. Wikipedia source
One of the reasons why humans are towering or nobler than animals. The man who asks questions about his existence and he also realizes himself as the questioner. So, he sought and in his search, he assumed that there was something that could be found, namely its possibilities, including its ability to find the meaning of life.
Humanitarian sciences including philosophy have tried to answer the fundamental question about human beings, so it can be imagined how many formulations of human understanding.
The many definitions of humans, prove that humans are multi-dimensional beings, humans have many faces. Then, which face do we want to follow? What is a human face in the eyes of a biologist? What is a human face in the eyes of a psychologist? What is a human face in the eyes of an anthropologist? A person's characteristics in philosophy? Or other
By opening a reasonable scope, we should see humans as natural beings, "natural nature" who are part of nature and therefore have properties and are subject to natural law as well.
As natural beings, humans have certain needs. He needs food to keep his body fresh and healthy. He needs entertainment so that his life is interesting and not boring. He also needs to study and so on.
Thus, it can be said that humans are all beings who need physical and spiritual things. The existence of these needs indicates that humans are unfinished creatures, meaning that to fulfil all their needs he must work and work in the "Spirit" sign. It is clear here that work and work have a human meaning. In the work reflected on the quality and human dignity.
According to existentialists the nature of human nature.
The most basic thing we can say about humans is that they are radically free, to be anything except to not be free. [They can choose anything except choose not to choose.] In his words, we are “condemned to be free.” Consciousness is also aware that it is not the objects it ponders, that many things are not the case, and that we lack many things. The concept of nothingness or negation relates to freedom for Sartre. For the ability to conceive of what’s not the case—I could have done that—implies the freedom to imagine and choose other possibilities. In large part consciousness is this conceiving or desiring things to be different—not to be as they are. Negation implies freedom of mind and of action.” Reason sn Meaning source
Then we can also discuss the ability of humans who have good consciousness from within a person (human). because humans are able to distance themselves from their objects, including taking distance from themselves. He can distance himself from objects outside and inside himself.
Man is nothing else but what he makes of himself. We have choice, we have subjectivity, and we choose what we will make ourselves to be; we are entirely responsible for our existence:, Thus, existentialism’s first move is to make every man aware of what he is and to make the full responsibility of his existence rest on him. This thought is often not easily accepted. ‘Subjectivity’ is a word that riles up many. “If everything is subjective then nothing is objective; nothing is absolute! Our values are nothing more than our whims! Nothing is right or wrong! Rabble, rabble, rabble!” Sartre replies that, “it is impossible for man to transcend human subjectivity.” He isn’t saying “I prefer subjectivity over objectivity,” he’s asking, “how can we possibly not be subjective?” Even the religious individual who believes that morality is absolute and comes from God must, at some point, choose to believe that this is the case. Our responsibility is a blessing and a curse. It leads us to feel things like anguish, forlornness, and despair. existentialism is a humanism source
Taking the distance from objects outside allows humans to develop their social aspects. Whereas taking a distance from oneself, allows humans to develop their individual aspects. The ability to exist in the ability to distance themselves from their objects means that humans are able to penetrate or break through and overcome the boundaries that hold them.
The ability to break through this is not only in relation to the matter of space but also about time. Man is not bound by space (in this space or here), he is also not bound by time (this time or now) but is able to penetrate into the future or into the past.
This ability to place yourself and penetrate is what is called the ability to exist. It is precise because of this ability to exist, in itself, there are elements of freedom. So what is the word in the heart?
The word heart is the ability to make decisions about good and bad for humans as humans. People who do not have consideration and the ability to make decisions about good or bad can also be said to be the ability to take these decisions from a particular point of view.
For example, from the point of its own interest, it is said that his conscience is not sharp enough. Humans have an accompanying understanding of what will be done or what they have made, even understanding the consequences of good or bad decisions for someone as a human being.
So, here comes a sense of responsibility and is willing to bear the consequences of actions that demand responsibility. Various forms of responsibility. There is a responsibility to attend to yourself, to the community and so on
Self-responsibility means bearing the demands of conscience, for example in the form of deep regret. Responsibility to society means to bear the demands of social norms, which means being prepared to bear social sanctions when social responsibility is not implemented.
Thus the sense of freedom from someone as a human being is not bound by something, other than being bound (in accordance) with the demands of human nature. Humans are free to do as long as they do not conflict (accordingly) with the demands of their nature as human beings. One can only feel an inner freedom if the existing bonds have fused with him, and animates all his actions.