HUMAN GENOME PROJECT

in science •  9 months ago

Hello steemians .This blog is about human genome project .so, basically this is about the project which requires a lot of research trying to understand the exact DNA sequences in the human genome.so, let us try to understand what it is-

Before we talk about human genome project let us first talk about the concept of genetic make up-

GENETIC MAKE UP

So, what comes to your mind when you think of make-up.Make up is like may be decorating yourself like mostly the female they use so much of make up materials to look better right??😊.so that is the kind of make up you can think of.But, when talk of genetic make up it is about the genetic constituent of each and every individual.Now, you would have observed that all individuals look different , if you look at yourself and your friends or your cousins they all look different, i mean you are not exactly similar to anybody,except the scenario of identical twins.You might have certain similarities with your siblings but still there are differences ,so,you are able to recognize one person as different from that of another,so what causes this differences between two individual?? Any two individual differ because their DNA sequences differ.( DNA which is present each and everybody's cell ).so, the sequence in DNA differing in each of them and hence the traits are also differing.That is why they look different.The DNA decide the phenotypic characters of an individual.so, if you talk about the look of an person , the features , the immunity etc. they are all determine by the genes and genes are nothing but the sequences on DNA.so , we can say that DNA sequences make every individual different .Gene_Image.png
(This picture may help you to understand what are chromosomes,DNA and genes)

https://www.genomebc.ca/education/glossary/

So, because of this scientists decided to sequence the human DNA.Therefore, higher techniques needed for the same, but , it was worth to understand the genetic make up because this would help in curing and preventing several diseases .Now, one such example of disease like cancer,which can be genetically inherited ,so, if the actual cause of such diseases can be determined by looking at the DNA sequences then such diseases can be prevented.In fact not only prevented they can be cured as well.so, they felt that the amount of time or amount of and money would be spent by doing this research will be worth it.That is how started this entire human genome project.

HUMAN GENOME PROJECT

It was a mega project.Mega is something extremely big, because this project happened on a very large scale because we will get to see now what were the goals of this project and what was the scope for this project.we will also get to see now that how big was the aim of this project and how difficult it was.It was a project of determination of human DNA sequences using genetic engineering techniques.During this project several new techniques came out because of advanced technology they used.There were many different fields related to genetics like genetic engineering ,bioinformatics came into picture and they all help the human genome project towards a successful end.

HOW DIFFICULT WAS THE PROJECT?
Now, we all know that each cell in human body has 23 pairs of chromosome that means there are total 46 chromosome in each cell,and each of this chromosome there are thousands of of gene which are located on them.so, the human genome contains total of 3 million base pairs.so you can just understand how big and difficult was the project.Also determining the sequence of 3 million base pairs was not at all an easy task

So , there were many difficulties because of this huge aspect of the project and the first thing was the cost.The cost for sequencing one base pair was approximately 3USD for 3 billion =3×3 billon USD .other difficulties are:-

  1. INFORMATION STORAGE

Even if we sequence the base pair the main task was how were you going to store that information.Now, if we start printing the DNA sequences and start keep storing them in the form of books , there will be almost around 3,300 books and each books contains 1000 pages.so, there were no points to storing informations in the form of books.so, to store such huge amount of data first and highly efficient computational devices are needed.so, that was got another difficulty.

  1. DATA ANALYSIS

Also high efficient devices were needed for data analysis. So ,even if you start sequencing you need to decipher the genetic code and for deciphering the information you need good data analysis tool.

These were the challenges in front of the HGP

GOAL OF HUMAN GENOME PROJECT

why was this project being done like it was definitely being done in order to DNA sequences in cases of human being so that the various life threatening can be cured and prevented.

MAIN GOALS OF HGP

  1. To identify the genes in human DNA
    2)Determine sequences of 3 billion base pairs
    3)store the information so that we can better understand the human species
    4)Data analysis

Thanks for reading my blog .Your valuable comments would highly be appreciated

content source
1)Take help of NCERT book

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Good post bro. Nice to have some knowledge about HGP. Loddar aye vo ni 😊

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Thank you for the compliment @iamsgr .khoi lodar ko asha naich