I have to give it to him, he has a good portion of dry humor. Like with most Lectures there is a Q&A at the end and sometimes the questionnaires can tickle out a few personal thoughts to a subject which they just do not jet want to have presented in their slides.
The link to the Lecture you can find here . (x,y = 3,2) Video coordinate. Someone in the audience asked Dr. Frieman about the Big-Rip that might be possible at the end of the Universe life cycle. Good question, but exactly here Physicist seem to be contradictory in what they say. Normally when they talk about Dark Energy they always speak of it as “Pushing” Matter away and causing the Universe to expand. I have always had the notion that Dark Energy pulls everything apart like Dr. Frieman explains occurs in the Big Rip.
Why then the two views of DE. It, DE can’t do both at the same time or does the property of DE change with time and when and for what reason. In the Graphic below I’ve added some comments in white and red and added a view lines so one has the possibility to go deeper into this line of thought.
Briefly it was said that as the Universe over time expands, Matter and Dark Matter stay more or less constant and gets on average diluted. That is why the percentage over the Billion of years of Matter and DM become less or smaller in relation to the Volume of Space. Space on the other hand just seems to be created out of nothing and the Universe expands and therefore the volume increases. At the same time Dark Energy increases in percentage terms compared to the amount of Matter and DM which is in existence in the Universe. DE dose not dilute in itself, the amount of Energy per Unit stays constant.
Are you starting to ask yourself questions. Now take a look on the Graphic below. This was a screen shoot in the Video of which I took 2/3 of the left hand side of it. Some comments and parallel lines were added by myself. I’m sure you can tell the difference from the Original.
Just to be clear, I’m not hacking on Dr. Frieman, but it seems to be standard among the Physicists that they speak of Dark Energy in both of these terms that it Pushes or Pulls depending on what is being discussed.
On the bottom half of the Graphic you can read how the percentages of Matter, DM and DE changes over TIME in relationship to the size of the Universe, explicitly to its Volume. The only thing that dose not change is the Dark Energy Density which makes it the constant which Unifies everything I would conclude.
No need to Read further if you do not want to, from here on in it will become a philosophical thought experiments.
… there has bin a lot of talk in Cosmology and the Astrophysics Community about the existence of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Dose it or dose it not. Every one is becoming inpatient and are unsatisfied with the results up until now. Some feel that the Science is falling short and that the whole complex is driven by Business practices. That’s understandable because a lot of money is needed for the tools to be build to study and gather Data to make progress. Some have the feeling that money driven science is like herd mentality and if it seems like they are going in the wrong direction its hard to turn the ship or accept that new ideas are needed. Scientists are taking a lot of money from private spenders and tax money and the sponsors want results but not necessarily, “Well we found out that this Idea was wrong”. But that is just normal progress in acquiring knowledge. Try and error.
Examples of the discussion:
Anton Petrov introduces new concepts of DM & DE and is at the end somewhat frustrated of reporting once so and then again differently. Length 13:23
Problems with DM & DE hypotheses and alternative ideas . Length 1:16:45
Full Debate – What is DE with Erik Verlinde. Length 40:38
What for me is frustrating for example is when Erik Verlinde gets criticized for coming up with models and mathematical notations that do not have a bunch of variable in them so that one can manipulate the equation so long until it fits the observation being made with the telescopes etc.. I find that nerving. If physicists are on some kind of Dead-End-Road new ideas and methodologies might be needed to get back on the right track.
That is why I am presenting some ideas below that might be considered outside the BOX. There might be something similar out there, maybe not, if so maybe soon by professionals that can poor the ideas into Equations and Notations.
Gedanken Experiment; surely there is room for improvement, but it is a start.
E = mc² Einstein figured out. So everything we see around us is described on the right hand side of the equation and is within our Universe. On the left side of the equation is the before the Universe Term expressed as E or Energy. Dark Cold Energy, 100% all DE. Cold, very cold low frequency because one should assume that this is the lowest possible state for a DE Field to be in and very dense. But since the Universe came into being something must of happened other wise we would not be able to ask this question. So this Energy Field must of bin unstable and brittle just like the things here on Earth at low temperatures. A slight push of sorts and the Entropy of the object chances very quickly. Things break and are put into motion. That is how I envision the beginning, a phase transition.
Physicists call the beginning phase of the Universe development “The Inflation” phase. Dark Energy has an entropy change and creates Space at a pace which is mind boggling. The volume of space which comes into existence in less then the blink of an eye doubles itself 90 X times from an a few millimeters to the size of the Solar System. For me DE will convert itself into Space continuously because that is what it started out doing and will do until all of the DE is converted to Space, if DE is limited in quantity some way or it will continue fore ever unless Space itself becomes unstable and slows the process down or even stops it all together into some kind of equilibrium state.
For the time being we can’t tell if DE is in finite quantity of supply or not but we now it hasn't found an equilibrium with Space itself yet, to the contrary Space expansion is speeding up according to studies of Super Nova Stars of type 1A. Therefore Space as it expands in Volume must at some point become also unstable and converted into something at the rate of Energy consumption which was less fast then the conversion from DE into Space because it did not stop Space creation but slowed it internally down for a certain time and since 5 Billion years or so seems to be accelerating faster then in the previous eons.
One other aspect of DE one should take a look at is its Density and Energy potential. With this thought experiment I would presume that DE has an even higher density then we can presume exists in a Black Hole. If the Matter from a larger Star which has collapsed into a Black holes after the stars burning cycle has ended turned into DE, the Black hole would just disappear in a moment because DE has the tendency always to convert into Space expansion. According to the Scientists, the Hubble constant lies around the value of 67 km/sec/Mpc . One parsec is about 3.26 light-years. This number tells us how much Space is being created every second. Suppose two objects ate at a distance of 1000 pc apart and have no velocity, then they would still be moving 67km/sec away from each other because of Space creation, Universe expansion. So if Black holes just do not disappear or are converted into Space then they do not have the same structure at the singularity as DE has. The energy density must be less then that for DE. Could be do to the limits of the Planks length which must be a property of the Space matrix.
Another property of this thought Universe is what you can see in the graph below. If DE has even a higher density then Black holes we still do not have to worry of being crushed to death. But like a black hole which pull Matter into it, hear we have the opposite situation. Space is being pulled into existence. Space and the processes within our physical universe up until now still prevent the Big Rip. That could be coming to an end if as suggested the expansion of the universe is speeding up. Until now that hasn't happened the further evolving of the universe has prevented that for the time being. Lets take a look at what night be happening.
Normally every Field has somehow a complimentary particle that comes with it. Maybe that is why the DE field is so unstable because it might not have a complimentary Particle and just continues to create Space until times end. This could also explain why DE as it has bin observed does not interact directly with Matter.
Space, or a Space Field without a particle is in itself not good for us either because of the 4 dimensional World that we live in one might assume that at some point of Space expansion, the Space Field became unstable and created the Space-Particle called Time which only with its existence gives us a Time Arrow that leads to a more orderly System. The Time Particle would also be in a lower Energy State then the Space Field. Entropy is constantly changing the structure of the new Universe. This might be a new concept that Time be envisioned in this manner, as a Particle but it might be necessary so that Space-Time could be stable for the whole life cycle of the Universe. This concept might also be the seed which allows Matter to come into existence, because Matter can only exist within a Space-Time Matrix.
This is maybe the time to ask what Matter is anyhow and what are its components. Physicists have learned that the building blocks of Matter are made of Leptons and Quarks and are held together by Bosons. The next chart shows the table of elementary particles which make up what we see around us.
As you can see the table is divided into three sections similar to the table of elements which order the Atoms according to the properties they exhibit. So is it here with the sub-atomic particles. Shown are 3-generation of Quarks in purple of which only the Up and Down Quark are relevant for the Proton and Neutron building. The core of Atoms. On the Lepton side we are interested in the Electrons which circle the Atoms. Three quarks constitute either a Proton or a Neutron that means either 2-Down Quarks and 1-Up Quark or vise versa. The Quarks are held together by Gluons and the Electrons are held on course through the binding with the W-Boson Particles. Now we know that the total Mass of Matter consists of 99.5% of the Gluon binding force and the rest 0.5% is actually devoted to the particle.
So you see, we are mainly made of binding energy. E = mc² just energy in motion. This is also why I do not like the idea of the Higgs Field and Higgs particle that was discovered at CERN with the LHC. The Higgs is Physicists say give Matter its Mass do to the friction when moving through the Higgs Field. At these scales there is now friction otherwise our universe would of come to a stand still by now. Even the planets just keep on going and the stars until they collide with something.
So how dose gravity work. Well gravity depends on mass and mass is nothing else then energy in motion. So gravity emerges as mass or energy starts to clump, as energy density increases. Erik Verlinde has worked hard on this subject. He has bin able to put into mathematical quotations what I was just able to make thought experiment about. His work is important.
This is also what I’m trying to get at with DE in Chart 3. DE is the Attractor not the Pusher. Physicists have this principal that the larger the particle in general the faster it decays into smaller stabler ones. That is why electrons and up-quarks, down-quarks are so stable because they are small and are a good basis to build our material world around. What is the contrary, DE … the universe can’t just come into being from nothing, one always need something which can transform into something else. DE might of bin the biggest single entity ever and it would only make sense that it decay into something else.
If you believe that there was a beginning then there must also be an end, otherwise it would be a continuum which could then be considered a steady-state-universe the way Einstein wanted it. The reasoning for Einstein to put a variable into his equations was to jigger a steady-state-universe. I suppose he wanted to avoid a beginning scenario to keep Religion out of it.
I can fallow that thought.
Update 31.01.2019 14:27 CET
That’s quite a large number on that screen shot up there and Black holes have even higher densities. And Dark Energy most likely even more than Black holes. The LIGO observatory which was able to detect the merging of two Black holes recorded a signal from which the energy release for a brief moment could be calculated as being more than 50 X the amount released by all the stars in our visible universe by two objects with their singular mass added together was less than 60 Solar Masses.
For a brief moment the Scientists were the witnesses to the potential energy in vacuum space and that was just a merging of two Black holes as I understand it. The Black holes were not even destroyed. Earlier we had just spoken of quarks. Well quarks can not exist by themselves. They usually appear in groups of three to form either a proton or neutron and sometime they come in pairs. One way of creating quarks is through Flux Tubes.
In the picture above you can see the representation of two quarks one in red and the other in blue, up and down quark. This is what happens when quarks are PULLED apart from each other. In the vacuum space a flex tube with a limited depth and width appears. When the maximum distance between the two quarks approaches they separate, the binding force of the gluons is over come and two new quarks appear out of the vacuum space complimentary to the quarks which have bin divided.
The vacuum space looks like quantum foam with virtual particle jumping into and out of existence. They are created and are being annihilated continuously. This energy consumption is what maybe keeps the universe in an equilibrium state. The problem is that the universe is starting to expand faster then in the steady state mode. According to Chart-1 the percentage of DE in the total make up is increasing and the amount of Matter and DM is not increasing. I do not think that gravity itself has something to do with it because gravity acts on mass and therefore only on Matter. The Space matrix or Space Field should not be affected by the gravity distribution within. So what is causing the imbalance of the universe expansion.