Arenga Fiber For Water Purification in Rural Communities
Hello Dear steemian, today i will share you something about rural community.
The different of residence areas sometimes have different springs, for people who living in the countryside or near the hills they usually have turbid springs, the turbid water caused by manganese, iron and other impurities. So, The white clothes often changed the color to white-cream after washing it, but it happen after several times clothes washed. Usually, the waters in the hill village area was turbid, some imagine it look like watered tea, therefore the villagers often wash their clothes somewhere, where clear water is found. Why they don't wash their clothes in their house ? Because the water in their well was turbid. Then i share this post to give them a way how can they convert their turbid water to be clean water. Before i begin to my explain, lets to know about several materials that we can use for Filtration Method.
Activated carbon is a material made from charcoal, it used as an absorber because it has a pore about 20 A and surface area about 3000 m2/g, therefore Activated Carbon used as material absorption. Actually, the people in the rural can make their own activated carbon with charcoal, rather it from coconut shells or other similar materials. The process of making Activated Carbon there are 2 ways that is chemistry and physics, which is meant physically here is the activation process, which is meant physically and chemically here is its activation process. Physical activation process requires high temperature, whereas chemical activation doesn't require high temperature, but the charcoal should be heated with alkaline solution, whether it Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) or Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). Then it should be washed to make it cleaned (pure from impurities).
I have previously discussed about quarts in gemstones compound, where it can be found and how it reacts with metals, this time I discuss the quartz sand associated with water purification, why silica used for water purification ?, because silica doesn't react with any chemical at room temperature, then its density can filter rough particles. therefore, silica sand is used in the early stage filtration. And quartz with chemical formula SiO2 also an active substance for absorption. I have explained about silica as absorber in post silica gel/xerogel.
Arenga Palm Fibers
Aren Palm is a tree that grows in mountains or hills, this tree wasn't planted by people as they plant a mangoes, but this tree grows in the forest by itself (it mean without treatment or fertilization), in addition to its water can be used to produce the sugar, aren fiber can also be used as a broom, some inland communities use these fibers to filter water, this filtration method also categorized as deposition of water.
The knowledge of rural community, the water filtration only with sand and fiber, they don't use Activated Carbon. Even strange when they hear about Activated Carbon word. When I sat in a diner, I'm talking, they asked me how to clean the water, because after filtrate with the sand and palm fiber the water also still looks cloudy (turbid). Even once in a year they replace the palm fiber, When palm fibers removed from filter tank, it covered with yellow dirt. So, I suggest to them to add activated carbon as absorber, and increase the thickness of fiber and sand. An illustration I describe, what they should do in the water purification process, Figure 1 is a tank filter, where they only filter with sand and fibers, figure 2 that what I suggested to add activated carbon into filter tank.
Solve The Problem
The water inside the well still contains many impurities, coarse and fine particles. At the filtration stage with sand (quarts or SiO2), some coarse particles will settle (sendiment), except it can precipitate water it also can be as absorber, if any particle passed, it will be deposited on the fiber filtration, The water get slow speed in the settling process, so with addition activated carbon, the escaped particles will be absorbed by activated carbon, if the filtration only use 2 layers, the particle which passes from fiber will directly entry to the reservoir. Therefore, the addition of Activated Carbon is more effective in screening than using sand and fiber only.
Each region (the countryside), the water has a different turbidity, So the people should know how the water purification process with economical way, The content of impurities water such as manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), etc. They can affect the water color (yellow cloudy or watered tea), So it can give effect in washing. Therefore, the utilization of water purification should be increased by addition of Activated Carbon.
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