Pedagogical Strategies that Help the Teacher in the Learning of Children with ADHD

in life •  13 days ago


My research work to be able to finish my high school was on this topic, and I would like to share a little about what it is

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most frequent psychiatric disorder in childhood and affects 5% of the school-age population. This means one or two children per classroom.

This neurobiological disorder is caused by an imbalance between two brain neurotransmitters: noradrenaline and dopamine, which directly affect areas of the brain responsible for self-control and the inhibition of inappropriate behavior. This causes in children who suffer from an inappropriate level of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, which is inconsistent with their level of development.

Students with ADHD are usually children much more restless, impulsive and distracted than the rest of their classmates. Their symptoms make it extremely difficult for them to sit still in class, finish their homework correctly and on time, or not disturb their classmates.

Both parents and teachers should be alert to these children who are usually very hyperactive, it is known that every child is hyperactive, but you never know when in reality this can be a disorder, and you will need help

Symptoms:

• -Attention and concentration:
-Difficulty when establishing an order in tasks or small responsibilities at home.
-It is difficult to "get going" (to get dressed, do homework) because they are easily distracted by any other stimulus. -Presentan problems to maintain attention to finish their tasks (do cartoons, are distracted with the pencil) -Forget or forget necessary things (agenda, coat, scarf, wallet, homework, etc.). -They do not seem to listen when they are spoken to. -Forget doing their daily tasks (Brush teeth, pick up clothes)

• - Impulsivity: They often act without thinking.
-They speak at inappropriate times or respond hastily to questions that have not yet been formulated -They are hard to obey orders, not because they do not want to obey, but because they are not attentive when they are asked. - They tend to be little cautious and forget to plan (they start doing homework without the material).

• - Hyperactivity:
They tend to be considered annoying, noisy and unhappy and tend to be unfriendly and to be rejected by their peers. Parents and teachers, on the other hand, tend to be more authoritarian, controlling and invasive with children with ADHD compared to children without the disorder. Therefore, even when children with ADHD are not aggressive or disobedient, due to their personal characteristics they may suffer negative interpersonal experiences, which in the long run have an impact on the development of various social problems.
This disorder generates in children school and social problems. In many of the cases it is usually informed of the existence of bad behavior and social problems.

Certain Strategies

Behind the children diagnosed with ADHD is an academic performance lower than expected by age and intelligence. This can be explained by the symptomatology of the disorder since this syndrome is not a good ally for an adequate learning process. It should be noted that this disorder is usually associated with learning difficulties or disorders, especially in the areas of reading, writing and mathematics.

Difficulties in Reading.
It is common for children with attention deficit to have problems with reading. In general, the difficulty to maintain attention, the loss before reading, the different language errors (omissions, substitutions, etc.) and the pressure to which they are subjected together with the feeling of failure that invades them when they practice , they make many children come to hate reading. That is why we must use different strategies to motivate them. What to do if a child has a level below the class and should practice? Here are a few suggestions for teachers to organize a reading program for home: if we want this child to progress we must provide a training system that shows their progress, that does not cause fatigue and that motivates.

We will present a very brief menu of activities that the mother or father can use to get the child to read without tiring around 30, 45 or 60 minutes (depending on age).

- Activities to motivate reading
The mother or father and the teacher make a list of activities that involve reading and that do not exceed 10 minutes each. The procedure consists in choosing, with the child, a group of activities from this menu so that, at the end of the afternoon, the child has made 4-5 activities that, when added up, will correspond to a total of 40-50 minutes of reading activity. If necessary, the motivation of the child can be maintained by offering a point for each of the activities carried out or for a full work afternoon (depending on the degree of rejection experienced towards reading).

• Read a very short book every day
• Shared reading (so that it ends in three days):
• Board games that involve reading
• Read news as TV presenters

Difficulties in mathematics.
Children with hyperactivity present great difficulties for the development of the scientific-technological area, due to the inability for the global processing of information, the impulsive learning style or the lack of reflexivity.

Specifically, difficulties in mathematics are multiplied because aspects involved in the resolution of problems such as impulsivity or lack of self-instructions are affected.
In general terms, performance in mathematics is significantly lower than expected due to their age and below their level of intellectual functioning.

A common problem in children with ADHD lies in the logical reasoning and miscalculations that are usually due to distractions or failures in the sequencing process.
Based on experience, having done work in the classroom to improve logic, we have seen the work of attention and concentration, as cross-cutting aspects to combine with logic.

-Development of the activity.
The task consists in the realization of "magic triangles". In them you have to place a series of numbers, from 1 to 6, without repeating any and aiming to achieve the result set in advance in the center of said triangle, through the sum of the circles on each side.

We must bear in mind that it is a personal challenge for children, in which they must address themselves with self-instructions in the realization of it, since they can correct the work done immediately and reflect on the mistakes they have made in the case of not achieve the expected result.

It is an activity that can be worked from 6 to 18 years, since during the whole schooling of children is a good time for the application of strategies to improve the logic.
With it, in addition to working on mathematical logic and solving problems, we will intervene on:

• Self-instructions to automate the process of review and review of the task performed.
• The immediate verification of your work.
• Impulsivity.
• Reflection.
• Concentration.

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