How to make wool fabricsteemCreated with Sketch.

in #howto4 years ago (edited)

The answers to these questions will come from the Bryansk worsted factory, which specializes in the production of worsted fabrics.

Worsted spinning (from it kammwolle - combed, combed wool) - combed spinning of wool. According to its design, structure and appearance, worsted fabrics differ substantially from cloth fabrics. Worsted fabrics are produced from a long, uneven wool, exposed to spinning combing. Worsted yarn is much thinner than cloth yarn, it is not fluffy and is usually applied twisted at two ends.
The surface of worsted fabrics, unlike cloth cloths, is open, perfectly smooth or slightly fleecy, and the interlacing of threads appears prominently on the surface of the material, the felt-like layer from the roll, as was the case with cloth and drapes, is absent.
According to the raw material, worsted fabrics can be pure woolen, half woolen, when cotton yarn is applied along with wool, and mixed, when other fibers are added to the wool (usually short-fiber artificial silk).

Bryansk worsted factory

Worsted production (production of woolen fabrics) begins with the preparation of raw materials. The raw material goes to the combine in bales.

raw materials for worsted production

The wool in the bales is already washed and cleaned.

bales of wool

Sorters need to manually disassemble the bales of wool and prevent the ingress of defective wool into the production process.

worsted production

This is a reminder for the sorter. Such hair is laid aside.

defects in wool

So the future suit looks like :)

wool production

Disintegrator cleaning machine. Wool in it literally flies in tatters!

Disintegrator cleaning machine on worsted production

We disassemble the production of half-woolen fabrics. For their production we will need not only wool, but also synthetic fiber. For example, lavsan. Sorters also disassemble bales of synthetic fiber and load it, but already into another leavening machine.

baking machine for synthetic fiber

Loose and purified raw materials (wool and synthetic fiber) through the pipes enter the next shop.

woolen pipelines at the worsted mill

It's time to comb the hair on the card machine, get rid of fibers less than five centimeters in length and contamination. We also unravel the fibers of the wool and distribute them to parallel strands.

carding machine

Do not be scared. In the photo we comb the synthetic fiber.

worsted card

Bryansk worsted factory

Combed parallel fibers in the form of a coil of loose tape - tops of the first carding.

tops the first carding

The next stage of production. Tops the first carding again we scratch and compact. We get a hank of tops of the second carding.

production of wool yarn

Bryansk worsted factory

worsted production

In the production of wool yarn, special conditions must be created. The humidity of air should be 75-90%. Installed under the ceiling sprinklers, create the necessary level of humidity.

air humidifiers

Tops the second carding ready.

tops second carding

Finished tops.

tops. wool production

Well. Woolen fibers are combed, cleaned of dirt, laid in parallel strands and sealed. Go ahead.

worsted factory

We are combing the woolen fibers again, freeing up the residue of the contamination and further compacting.

worsted factory

Almost twice the packed fiber is placed in circles in large cylindrical containers.

production of wool yarn

wool production

The initial wool is light, but for the production of multi-colored wool yarn, we need wool of different colors. At the next stage we paint, wash and dry the wool and synthetic fiber.

worsted factory

worsted production

dyeing of fibers

coloring of wool

drying of dyed fibers

coils of colored fibers

lavsan fiber dryer

lavsan fiber dryer

Passage between the shops.

Passage between shops

Painted woolen or synthetic fibers are fed to a roving machine, where
they are combed again and stacked in a thin and even denser ribbon. It is at this stage that woolen and synthetic fibers are encountered, which up to this point have traveled in different ways.


roving machine

roving machine

Roving machine.


Another roving machine, but works with fibers of a different color.

roving at a worsted mill

skid steer

Rovnitsa, which then goes to the spinning machine.


These things are wound around the roving.

These things are wrapped in roving

Spinning machine on which the roving is stretched and tightly twisted. So a woolen thread is born. A woolen thread (woolen yarn) is wound on a spool.

spinning machine

Operator of the spinning machine.

The operator of a spinning machine at a worsted mill

And this is a spool with woolen yarn.

spools with woolen yarn

Evaporator with a steam chamber. In this thing, the yarn is spun on spools, so that it does not twist when rewinding to reels.

In this thing, the yarn is spun on spools so that it does not curl when rewinding to reels

The rewinding machine. He rewinds woolen yarn from a spool to spools.

worsted mill rewinding machine

rewinding machine

wool production rewinding machine

rewinding machine

rewinder operator at the worsted mill

A trolley with empty spools.

Trolley with empty spools

Temporary warehouse.

Intermediate warehouse

temporary warehouse of worsted semi-finished products

temporary worsted warehouse

If you look at the surface of the fabric from the front side to the lens, you can see how the individual threads running along the piece - the base - are intertwined with the strands of the transverse direction - the duck. The warp threads run parallel to each other along the entire piece of fabric. Therefore, before the main yarn goes to the loom, it is necessary to lay its long threads in rows. To do this, they are wound parallel to the common roller - navaya.
In this case, the warp threads must be strongly stretched, so that during the weaving process they are closely interlaced with weft threads. Do this on the back machine.

back-up machine

backing machine

worsted machine

preparation of a beetle on a back-up machine

Weaving machines. The air must be moistened.

manufacture of wool blend fabric

weaving wool

worsted loom production


weaving machines

Finishing site for worsted fabrics. Here, dyeing fabrics, drying, decaffeinating and so on.

finishing production of worsted fabrics

On these rails, an electric hoist is moved on the ceiling.

On these rails, an electric hoist is moved on the ceiling

In the far corners of the plant you can observe such a picture.

steam from the ground

The brewing shop. The finished fabric is carefully checked for tears and foreign inclusions. Tears are darned, inclusions are removed.

Tobacco packing shop

worsted manufacture

Tobacco smelting shop at the worsted mill

Who worked? Who is tired? The lunch hour has come!

Factory canteen Bryansk worsted plant.

Factory canteen Bryansk worsted factory

Bryansk worsted factory supplies cloth for sewing uniforms for ministries and departments. The tender for supply is held 2 times a year and the contract for the supply of fabric is only for six months. The management of the plant is concerned with such a short contract term and wants to increase it to three years.
With the increase in the contract for the supply of fabrics, the management of the plant believes that it will be possible to confidently predict the further development of the plant, the expansion and renewal of the machine fleet and the training of personnel, and the expansion of production.

expansion of worsted production

And here are samples of uniforms made from the fabric of the Bryansk worsted factory.

uniforms of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation

uniforms of the Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation

Samples of the school uniform.

worsted school uniform

Uniform clothes of JSC "Russian Railways".

Uniform clothes of JSC "Russian Railways"

We leave the combine.

Bryansk worsted factory

That's how we got acquainted with worsted production at the Bryansk warden factory.

Bryansk worsted factory

Link on the topic. Production of linen fabrics at the Kostroma linen manufactory.

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Post was informative but the pictures made it much better.

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