The Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to scientists studying quantum entanglement

in Popular STEM2 months ago

(Nobel Prize

The 2022 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Alain Aspect, John F. Clauser and Anton Zeilinger.

The trio won the prize for experiments with entangled photons, investigations into violations of Bell's inequalities, and work in quantum informatics.

The laureates will receive their awards at the official ceremony on December 10 this year.

The work of all three laureates is related to the study of entangled quantum particles and the violation of Bell's inequalities.

Bell's inequalities were proposed by John Bell in the 1960s to test whether or not there are hidden parameters in a quantum mechanical system.

If these inequalities are satisfied, then there are some hidden parameters in the system, and the hypothesis of local realism is fulfilled: that means that physical objects really exist and affect only their local environment.

We can check the validity of Bell's inequalities experimentally: the probability of states in the case of fulfillment and non-fulfillment of inequalities should differ.

The first who developed Bell's ideas and proposed an experiment to test inequalities was the American John Clauser.

Clauser managed to prove that Bell's inequalities are violated, that is, there are no hidden variables in quantum mechanics.

Then the French physicist Alain Aspe developed Clauser's approach and made sure that the initial conditions under which the pair of entangled photons needed in the experiment were emitted did not affect the measurement result.

He also published the first paper in which he proved that the inequalities are indeed not satisfied.

Anton Zeilinger began to use entangled quantum states in experiments: his group demonstrated for the first time the possibility of quantum teleportation

That means a change in the quantum state of a particle from an entangled pair when the state of another, located at a distance from it, changes.

Something Einstein had predicted as “spooky action at a distance”.

Last year's winners were Giorgio Parisi, Shukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselman for their study of patterns that govern random phenomena and fluctuations in complex physical systems at various scales.

Manabe and Hasselman have been developing models of the Earth's climate, quantifying climate change, and predicting global warming.

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