A tragic fate struck a famous British soldier, Thomas Edward Lawrence. He was killed in a motorcycle accident in 1935. Hugh Crains, a neurologist, investigated the cause of the death of the motorist who died from the impact on the head. The results of his research encourage the importance of the use of helmets for motorists and the military.
The use of head or helmet shields has been known to ancient peoples in the past. They understand that the head is a vital part that needs protection.
Helmet Crocodile Skin
In ancient Egyptian culture, crocodiles living on the Nile have a place of honor. They believe a soldier will gain extra strength and feared the enemy if wearing the attributes of crocodile skin. Appearing war clothes made of thick crocodile backs and helmets of the abdominal skin around 3rd century BC.
The Sumerians, who inhabited the ancient city of Ur, already had the technology of mixing gold and silver metal. Usually the goods they produce are used in a ceremony. One of them is a helmet. This helmet, with decorative decorations and special shapes on the ear, used the king. In addition to the ceremony, this helmet is designed to protect the wearer on the battlefield. Visible from the additional section on the side of the user's face. This gold helmet has been used by Sumerians since the third millennium BC.
The bronze helmet, weighing almost two kilograms, became the hallmark of the Greek army. The shape resembles a human skull and is designed to protect the head, face, to the neck. Began to use the Greek army (Athens and Sparta) approximately 650 years BC. Although in a very safe form, this helmet has its drawbacks: limited viewing and hearing space.
In the Roman era, the helmet also developed. Not only safe, he also signifies the rank. Allegedly, the decoration of a kind of horsetail on a helmet top is used to distinguish officers and ordinary soldiers. In addition to soldiers, similar helmets are used by fighters in a gladiator match. The difference is, the helmet for the gladiator covers the face in full and leaves only a hole for the eye view, which is shielded like a grating.
This Japanese war helmet was worn in the fifth century. Originally worn by the soldiers but later became an important part of the samurai equipment. Usually this helmet is elaborately decorated, indicating the rank, and worn with a cloak of war. It is said that this helmet and robe of war was inspired by Masamune Date, a samurai lengendaris. In the mid-16th century, there appeared various kinds of helmet style.
The honor of a knight in Europe in the Middle Ages was defined in a competition of one-on-one battles. Armed with spears and riding horses, they tried to knock each other down. The helmets worn by these knights covered their faces completely. Weighs three pounds. The front tapered into a nose.
In 1915, August Louis Adrian, a French military officer, designed a protective helmet. He was inspired by the Paris fire department. Helmet is also equipped with a badge attribute that is a sign of unity of soldiers. For example, a badge illustrated a bomb exploding for infantry union and two crossed guns for artillery union.
The first year of World War I, none of the soldiers were willing to wear steel helmets. Even the German troops wear only a kind of traditional leather hat named pickelhaube. British troops began using it in 1915, the design of John Leopold Brodie. Brodie's helmets are considered stronger than Adrian's design. Helm Brodie has helped many troops involved in the war in the trenches.
Germany as a major player in two World Wars developed his own helmet. They modify the steel helmets they produce. For example, the M1918 series gives room for the ear to be able to hear well in the trenches or on horseback. The helmet was then used by German army and police until the Nazis came to power.
The "steel pot" helmet began to be abandoned since the discovery of a material named kevlar by Stephanie Kwolek, a worker at DuPont company, in 1965. Kevlar, which has a lightweight and powerful structure, helps to increase mobility and reduce the burden of each combat personnel. In addition, this helmet is composed of three parts that make it bulletproof, resistant from impact, and comfortable to use. To keep the helmet in place, there is a nylon rope that curls past the user's chin.
If in World War II fighter pilots wore leather helmets and aviator sunglasses, today pilot helmets are integrated with infrared visualization and night vision.
In the United States developed a sport that relies on endurance: football. Hit-banging between multiplayer players is done. A special helmet is required, designed to minimize the risk of injury. Its interior is dominated by a foam that serves as a shock absorber and the front there is a kind of bars as a protective face.
Although motorcycles were introduced in 1885, the development of helmets still lags behind. Generally people wear a helmet Like a pilot, which is simple with a coat of fur. The frequent accidents that led to the loss of life prompted CF Lombard, professor at the University of Southern California (USC), to develop a helmet. The inner layer is made soft and comfortable, while the outer layer is able to absorb and distribute shock waves due to impact. In 1953, Lombard received a patent for this helmet. Beginning the development of modern motorcycle helmet that follows the design of Lombard helmet.
Compulsory SNI Helmet
Since helmets for motorbikes introduced the Lombard CF, there was an urgency to require the use of helmets. Australia became the first to apply it in 1961. The United States enacted that rule in 1966.
In Indonesia, through the call of Chief of National Police Hoegeng Imam Santoso, mandatory helmet officially enforced since August 1971. The violation, action. Support and rejection are popping up. Ali Sadikin, the then governor of Jakarta, firmly said: "I agree absolutely one hundred percent, even if it takes two hundred percent."
Emerging various helmets. Unfortunately, many do not meet the security standards. In 2009, regulations on helmet usage meet Indonesian National Standard (SNI).