Alexander the Great .. King of the Old World : The story
Alexander III of Macedon, son of Philip, his names the King of Macedonia, supreme leader of the Hellenic Association, Persian Shah , Pharaoh of Egypt, Master of Asia, was born in Macedonia on 20 July 356 BC and died in Babylon 10 June 323 BC, Macedonia The Greeks, one of the most famous military commanders and conquerors throughout history, was educated by the philosopher and world famous Aristotle until he reached the sixteenth century. By the 30th year he founded one of the greatest and greatest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece westward to the Himalayas in the east , And is considered one of the most successful military leaders in their career, as M gets defeated in any battle fought at all.
Alexander was succeeded by his father, Philip II of Macedon, on the throne of the country in 336 BC. After the latter was assassinated, Alexander inherited from his father a solid kingdom of foundations and an army of strong armies with veteran soldiers. In 334 BC. In a campaign against Persia, during which he defeated the Persians and expelled them from Asia Minor, and proceeded to extract their property one by one in a series of military campaigns of ten years.
Alexander succeeded in breaking the Persian army and destroying the military power of the Achaemenid Persian Empire at several crucial sites, most notably the battles of Isos and Gugmila. Alexander finally succeeded in overthrowing the Persian Shah Darius III and opening the entire territory of his empire.
Alexander sought to reach the end of the world and the great outer sea. He invaded India in 326 BC in an attempt to discover the way to that sea. But he was compelled to return to his place at the insistence of the army commanders and because of the army rebellion. Alexander died in Babylon In 323 BC, before he began to launch several new military campaigns planned, the first was the opening of the Arabian Peninsula.
A few years after his death, civil wars broke out between his followers that would have torn apart his empire, and led to several states that ruled each one (Khalifa) and was known as the kings of the sects. Each of these kings was independent and loyal only to himself. Remained alive from the leaders of Alexander's army and those who had participated in his campaigns in the past.
Alexander's legacy included the cultural intertwining of his conquests. He succeeded in mixing Hellenic-Hellenic culture with the different oriental cultures of the peoples under his control. He also founded more than twenty cities bearing his name in various parts of his empire. The most famous of these was the city of Alexandria in Egypt. The creation of a new Hellenistic civilization whose manifestations continued to be prominent in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire until the middle of the fifteenth century. Alexander was a prominent figure in Greek mythology, history and almost universal history, And has become the standard that determines the military leaders based on the success or failure of their march, and still the military academies around the world is considering its methods and tactics to the war to the present time.
- His childhood
Alexander was raised in the early years of his life by a nurse and a maid called Lannick, the sister of the late Alexander Kletus, a future commander of Alexander's army. Alexander was later educated by Leonidas Iberusi, a relative of his mother, and Lysimachos, In the service of his father, Alexander grew up the youth of the noble Macedonians, learning to read and write, play harp, horse riding, wrestling, and hunting.
When Alexander reached his tenth year, a merchant brought a horse to King Philip. When the King tried to ride the horse, he resisted him and refused to allow him or anyone else to cover him. The king ordered him to be slaughtered, unbridled, but Alexander asked his father to allow him to try to calm down. His magnificence and knees, saying that the horse afraid of its shadow, before Philip and allowed his son to try to tame him, he succeeded and obeyed his horse completely.
Plutarch says that Philip is so delighted with the courage and determination that his son has shown before him, and he says, "My son, you have to find a kingdom that has your ambition. Macedonia is very small." Then he bought the horse and gave it to his son. Alexander called his horse "Posifalus" Alexander was named after one of the cities he founded, the city of Busifla, which was located east of the Indus River.
- his education
When Alexander reached the age of thirteen, his father took him for a teacher who taught him philosophy and various human knowledge. He was presented with a great crowd of scholars, whom Aristotle chose, and the temple of the nymphs, the daughters of the god of the seas Poseidon, made him a place to teach. To rebuild the town of Stagira, the birthplace of Aristotle, which the king had previously been to the land before, and to accept the resettlement of its people and to buy and liberate all those who enslaved them, and pardoned those exiled and invited them to return to their homes.
This temple served as a boarding school for Alexander and other Macedonian noblemen, such as Ptolemy, Hafstein, and Kasandar, who became close friends of Alexander and his future army commanders, often referred to as Alexander's companions.
These young people taught the principles of medicine, philosophy, ethics, religion, logic, and art by Aristotle. Alexander showed a great fondness for Homer's work, especially the Iliad. Aristotle presented him with an annotated version of it, which Alexander carried with him in all his military campaigns.
At the age of 16, Alexander left his father Philip to wage a war against Byzantium, leaving his country to his young son. Alexander, on his father's behalf as Crown Prince, left Philip after the Tigris defeated the Macedonian regime, exploiting the modern age. Alexander was not aware of political and military affairs, but the latter surprised them, and received a harsh response, and drove them away from their regions and home to the Greeks, and founded a city called «Alexandroupolis», «the city of Alexander».
- The throne
In 336 BC Philip went to Aegean to attend the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra on Alexander the First of Epirus, the brother of his wife, Olympias. The commander of his bodyguard, the Bussanias of Ordeas, assassinated him. , And was caught by his followers and killed him immediately, including two of the owners of Alexander, namely: Perdikas and Leonatos, after the death of Philip Baiyas Alexander the King of Macedonia and the commander of the army, which did not exceed the age of twenty years.
- The battle of the river Granikos between Alexander and the Persians.
Alexander crossed the Dardanelles in 334 BC with an army of 48,100 infantry, 6,100 knights, a fleet of 120 ships with a crew of 38,000. The army also included a number of mercenaries and feudal warriors. Alexander showed his intention to invade all the empire lands Farsi, when he first planted a spear in the Asian mainland, said that he accepted Asia as a gift for his gods.
In contrast to his father, who always favored diplomatic solutions, the Macedonians clashed with the Persians in the first battle on the banks of the river Granjos, now known as the Bega River », Northwest Asia Minor near the site of the city of Troy, where the Persians were defeated and handed the keys to the city« Sard »capital of that territory, to Alexander, which entered the victorious, and seized the vaults, and continued to lead along the coast of the Ionian Sea, Alexander hit the siege on the city Halikarnassus located in the territory of Kariya, to be made The siege was so successful that the mercenary commander of the city, called Mamnoun al-Roudsi and the governor of the Persian province of Arandabad, who had been forced to withdraw from the city by sea, handed Kareya's rule to Ada al-Kariya, For the region, declared allegiance to Macedonia and Alexander adopted the adoption of the official until the rule of the region legally after her death.
After Alexander and his army spent the whole winter, they invaded and opened the fortified cities and castles in Asia Minor, followed their march southwards and crossed the portals of Cyrillic in 333 BC. They met the Persians again at Esos led by Shah Darius III himself, and the two armies fought in a fierce battle that resulted in Alexander achieving victory And the captivity of the Persian army and the Shah's escape from his life. His wife, two daughters and his mother, Sesigambis, were captured by his captors, and the Macedonian sheep had a great treasure that he carried with him and huge amounts of supplies and weapons.
This victory of Alexander the victor, who opened the doors of the Levant wide, to establish a city in the north of the country on the border of Anatolia, is «Alexandrona». Alexander now had to choose one of two plans: either to hunt the Persians to their own country, or to crawl south to open the Phoenician cities and Egypt before knocking on Persia. Alexander chose the second plan to safeguard his transport lines and to thwart any attempt The Phoenician cities were under the yoke of the heavy Persian colonization, and they opened their doors to Alexander and received him as a savior.
- Invasion of the Indian Subcontinent
After defeating the Persians, Alexander married a princess of Bakhtria called Rakhsana to strengthen relations with the rulers of his new provinces and then turned his attention to the Indian subcontinent to open them. He sent tribal leaders in Kandahar province, now in northern Pakistan, Their country, the province of Txila, called Omphis, whose kingdom stretched from the Indus River to the river of Jahlem, responded to Alexander's command, but the elders of some of the tribes of the tribe of the Cambodian people specifically refused to do so and Alexander punished them with a military campaign that forced them all to Subjugation to him.
After victory, Alexander marched through the Indus River to face Raja Bor, the master of the kingdom of Burafa, now in the Punjab province, in an epic battle called the Battle of Headpas, during which the land was overthrown in 326 BC. This battle was the hardest battle of Alexander at all, he lost many of the soldiers, and resisted by Raja Indian strength, and defended the country's defense heroes before the progress of the Macedonian conqueror, but Alexander's military experience had the final say in the identification of the victor, and his leaders and Asakrah The veterans could not easily be defeated, so they were able to defeat the Indian army and defeat it.
- The rebellion of the soldiers
Alexander tried to persuade his soldiers to move east for a short while after he did not succeed. One of his leaders, Quinus, intervened and asked him to change his mind and return. "Men have longed to see their parents, their wives and children, their land and their homeland." Alexander persuaded his soldiers to prepare to return home. The army marched along the Sindh River, opening the lands of the Mal tribe, now in Multan, and other lands of some other Indian tribes.
- His death and succession
Alexander died at the palace of Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon, on the tenth or eleventh of June, 323 BC. He was thirty-two years old. Historians differed slightly in determining the causes of death. Plutarch said that before Alexander died about 14 days ago, One of his guests received and spent the night starring Yatsamran and drinking wine until early dawn, then suffered a strong fever, which continued to worsen until he became speechless, feared by his soldiers and worried them, they allowed the ear to line up in front of him to deliver it, Alexander Diodorus suffered severe pain after he suffered i S pure wine in honor of Heraclius, and then died after his pain tortured a strong punishment.
Another possible cause of Alexander's death was his assassination by the Macedonian aristocrats. Diodorus, Ariane, and Justin mentioned this theory. They said that Alexander was poisoned by some of his associates, but Blotarch rejected it and said it was a baseless fabrication. Diodorus and Ariane are only reminding them of the sequel to interest.
The available evidence suggests that poisoning was the cause of Alexander's death. The main suspect was Antipater, whom Alexander entrusted to Macedonia during his absence. He returned and isolated him and summoned him to Babylon. Antipater considered his summons to be a death sentence. , Who worked as a legator to Alexander, to poison him in wine or water, and some researchers responded to those who say this theory of poisoning that the period of twelve days passed between Alexander's disease and death, a period is too long to take any of the species that were At that time, its full effect is known. Poisons are slow They were probably not yet known.
According to one recent theory that came into being in 2010, the symptoms of Alexander's disease in the old documents are consistent with the symptoms of black water poisoning of the Stix River, which contains a high-risk Kalikmycin compound caused by a deadly bacteria.
- After his death
Alexander's body was placed in a golden coffin made in the shape of a human being, which in turn was put into gold. Some texts say that a legend called Aristander predicted that the country where Alexander would be buried would "know happiness throughout its days and no one would be able to invade and conquer it." Every successor of Alexander considered the acquisition of the body of their late king to legitimize his own succession, especially since the burial of the current king of the former king was a conclusive proof of his right to the throne.
The procession of Alexander's funeral procession from Babylon to Macedonia was brought to Ptolemy and the road was cut off. The path to the capital of Egypt, where the body was crowned and buried, was then transferred by his successor Ptolemy II to Alexandria, where it remained until just before the beginning of the Middle Ages. IX, one of the last successors of Ptolemy I, to transfer the mummy of Alexander from the golden coffin to another coffin made of glass, so that he can dissolve the first and the currency of the liquid.
Roman leaders Pompey, Julius Caesar and August Caesar visited the tomb of Alexander. The latter was said to have accidentally taken off the nose. Julius Caesar was reportedly crying when he was thirty-three, saying that despite all his achievements, It was also said that the Roman emperor Caligula had removed the pectoral plate from the mummy and kept it for himself. Emperor Septimus Severus closed the tomb of Alexander in front of the public in the year 200 AD. His son Karakla, a great admirer of Alexander, visited his tomb during his reign. After this covenant, I took The signs and texts that talk about the mausoleum carrying little by little that ended extremely rare, even became his fate among the historical things that are currently shrouded in fog.
- His military
Historians argue that Alexander deserved the title of "great" deservedly, because of his military success is unprecedented, he never lost a battle, although most of the armies fought by the army exceeded the number and several, and this is due to the good use of land sites, And to train infantry and cavalry on the use of exceptional tactics, and his bold strategies, and to meet the blind that his soldiers had.
Alexander the Philistine armed with a long spindle of up to 6 meters (20 feet). These corps had been trained to fight rigorously since the days of Philip II, until they reached the highest levels of armies in their time. Their movement was swift and maneuverable on the battlefield. Alexander was also aware of the possibility of a schism in his army because of its ethnic and linguistic diversity and different weapons. This problem was solved by his personal involvement in the battles as King of Macedonia.
- His qualities
The father of Alexander had a great influence on the composition of his character and his qualities. His mother was very ambitious and led him to believe that he was able to invade the Persian Empire and even instilled in him this feeling. Blotarch says that this ambition is what kept Alexander's heart and spirit tall and unremitting. Those years of campaigns and conquests. As for his father, he was the highest example to follow him at every step, as he became aware of his vision to open fortified castles and the country, one year after the other, and victory after victory, ignoring the serious injuries.
Alexander's relationship with his father was a competitive one; he felt an urgent need to excel and cover his achievements. Perhaps this explains many of his reckless actions on the battlefield. Alexander was worried that his father "would not leave him a great or great achievement to show him to the world. .
Blotarch says that one of the most prominent characteristics of Alexander: his sharp print, recklessness and impulse, qualities that played a role in making his decisions without doubt, know Alexander's stubbornness and hardness of opinion, but nevertheless he was receptive to any discussion and listened to his modern as long as it was logical. And he was keen to read the books, and learn the wisdom and saved it quickly, thanks to Aristotle, the great teacher, has contributed to the intelligence Alexander and the reckless side of his character are by far his success Military commander.
Alexander was knowledgeable, loved both science and the arts, and cared for him. But his interest in sports and the Olympic Games was small, unlike his father, and he always sought the ideals of honor and glory.
The Macedonian leader enjoyed an extraordinary persuasive ability and ability, and a great personal power, namely the girls who would make anyone a great leader, and the most visible and proved by his unique features, that he united Macedonia and the entire country of Greece and Persians into one empire, Despite the accumulation of great contradictions, and after his death was unable to one of his leaders to maintain that unity, dispersed the country and divided into a few different countries.
Alexander founded about 20 cities bearing his name in many areas of the lands opened during his military campaigns, but most of them occurred east of the Tigris River, and the largest of these undisputed cities is Alexandria, Egypt, which was later estimated to occupy a prestigious position among cities The world in general and the Mediterranean Basin in particular, the cities founded by Alexander have taken place on important commercial roads, often in fortified places, inhabited by Greeks and indigenous peoples.
Alexander the Great left this world with his body only .. But his reputation is still loud as his name as one of the greatest if not the greatest military commander was able in less than ten years to open the old world from the top to the end, wrote a lot about him in hundreds of years and narrated by novels And stories as Hollywood several years ago produced a huge film about his life and conquests the body of Alexander, the actor Colin Farrell and directed by the famous director Ridley Scott.
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