Dyslexia aka developmental reading disorder (DRD) is defined as a reading disability despite being intelligent, having enough motivation and educational opportunities. It usually occurs when the brain does not properly recognize and process certain symbols.
It is derived from two words "Dys" meaning "difficulty" and "lexia" meaning "words" thus dyslexia describes a person who has difficulty with words.
The disorder affects millions of people all over the world and approximately 5-15% of the world population is diagnosed to be suffering from various degrees of dyslexia. It is said to be more common in males than in females.
Dyslexia is believed to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Some cases run in families and It often occurs in people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is due to impairment in the brain's ability to translate images received from the eyes or ears into understandable language. It is not due to vision or hearing impairements.
A dyslexic person has difficulty in verbal skills, reasoning, hand to eye coordination, concentration, perception, memory and social adjustment. These problems result in the individual having poor grades in school and becomes classified as an under achiever. Due to this, the dyslexic child is often labeled as lazy, as low intellect and unmotivated. This eventually affects the child's personality resulting in low self esteem. The child often takes on the role of becoming the class clown, being rebellious, feeling like a misfit and keeping to himself/herself, being difficult and refusing to attend school.
Dyslexia is a life long condition and may affect individuals differently at various degrees. It is seen that even though a dyslexic child has a great difficulty in coping with normal school work, he/she may be interested in other aspects like sporting or extracurricular activities. It is here that the child needs to be encouraged tremendously so that he/she can overcome the low self esteem.
The first step in treating dyslexia is early intervention followed by multi-sensory teaching approach and emotional support. Treatment involves adjusting teaching methods to meet the person's needs
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