A Hazard is anything with the innate potential to cause harm.
A Risk is the likelihood for harm to occur
-HAZARD + RISK = HARM.
The crocodile story.
A pool filled with crocodile is a hazard and when you bring man to that same pool, it's a risk which likely going to cause harm to the man.
Classification of hazards
Based on environment they occur
-physical: known as objective hazard. Minimal matter yet capable of affecting the biological mechanism of exposed workers. E.g Radiation, noise, temperature, pressure, vibration, light, electric e.t.c.
-chemical: especially used in industries e.g pesticides, acids, alkali, benzene, asbestos, silica, coal dust e.t.c.
-biological: caused by living organisms e.g viruses, bacteria, fungi, helminths, as well as toxic or allergic reactions to plants, insects, birds, animals including humans.
-mechanical: known as functional hazards arising from accidents like injuries from tools and machines. E.g slips, trips, falls, abrasion e.t.c.
-social: human to human interaction at work. E.g malingering, alcohol, stress, depression,bullying e.t.c they usually affect job satisfaction or well being.
-ergonomic: repetitive movement, improper setup of work station, poor design of tool e.t.c.
Its the process of identifying a potential hazard, analyse and evaluate the risk associated with the hazard, with the aim to take reasonable practicable measures to prevent the hazard. It involves the use of available information to evaluate and estimate exposure to a substance to a substance and it's consequent adverse effects.
Steps in Hazard-Risk Assessment
-identity the hazards.
-decide who might be harmed and how.
-analyse or evaluate the risk and decide on the precautions.
-record your significant findings.
-review your risk assessment and update, if necessary.
General Methods Of Control Of Occupational Hazard And Diseases.
Depends on the typos hazard.
- Elimination: removal of the hazard or process.
- Containment: replacing with less hazardous agent or process.
- Adjunct: reducing the risk or hazard by engineering modifications.
- Personal protective equipment.
- Personal hygiene, house keeping and general cleanliness.
Next chapter: Occupational health diseases