The man rightly wonders what other value can have for him and for reason and science if, in the real life of the crucial and decisive for life, they remain helpless and redundant. This is also an unforgivable distance and passivity of the mind, because it is not the same to admit your powerlessness to go beyond the overwhelming limit after you have used all your cognitive powers and opportunities, and you have risen over uncritical and dogmatic thinking.
It is quite another thing to remain passive in the premise of pre-doctrine, based on the premise that reason can not achieve the absolute completeness of knowledge. It is equally wrong to want to go with the help of reason where he is already helpless before the abyss of antinomies - in this error comes the uncritical, dogmatic, Predant metaphysics, and you do not want to go with reason where he is able to help you, as every positivism does. Despite such one-sided views, the human spirit is open, courageous and honest to all vital questions of a fundamental nature and builds its metaphysical systems that may not themselves give the last truth about God and the eternal principles and the first beginnings of the existing, but pointlessly to look for them.
Tasks of philosophy as a science
Philosophy is love and the pursuit of knowledge and wisdom. According to Socrates, the philosopher does not have the overall truth, but he is the one who seeks it, Karl Jaspers writes: "Philosophy means always being on the road. Her questions are more important than the answers, and each answer leads to new problems. But this "to be on the way" - the conscience of man is not contained in statements and definitions: it is not in formulations and confessions, but in the historical incarnation of man, in the rising of his being. To win this reality in a certain situation where man is, is the meaning of philosophizing: "
Immanuel Kant believes that philosophy should answer the following questions:
- What Can I Know? theoretical / cognitive aspects of philosophy.
- What am I / what should I do? moral-practical aspects of philosophy.
- What can I hope for? / religious aspects /.
- What is a person? philosophical anthropology.
Georg Fr. Hegel defines philosophy as a science of the Absolute. Its task is: to know what is eternal and existing in itself as a dialectical development and revelation of the Absolute idea. Philosophy is required to create such a system of views that practically satisfies the mind and heart of man and in this respect the theoretical and practical trends are inseparable. Naturally, this puts forward the philosophy of solving the most cardinal problems and puzzles that have excited humanity in its historical development. The practical trends in this regard are related to the question of the meaning of human existence. For example, according to Seneca, philosophy should be the educator of mankind, it is an art of living, it is a moral teaching that should lead us on the path to the virtue to which we must strive. Mark Aurelius has argued that the task of philosophy is "character formation and tranquility, harmony of the spirit" (see his work "Towards Himself"). It is clear that the focus is on the practical tasks and results of philosophy. Another, the opposite extreme, is the consideration of the theoretical meaning of philosophy. A typical example of this is Neo-Kantianism (Marburg and Baden School), which denies the importance of social science and the tasks they place.