Development of psyche, consciousness and personality. Phylogenesis, ontogenesis, anthropogenesis. Development Factors.
The new direction in psychology is tied to humanism and points to the spiritual continuity that exists between it and those ages in the historical development of mankind, such as the Greek civilization, and especially the Renaissance, where the interest in human personality was a fundamental determinant of scientific and cultural development. It is important to note that humanistic psychology has actual dimensions, not an expression of the dreams of its creators.
To clarify the issue of the development of psyche, consciousness and personality, it is good to look at the problem of the nature of the mental. This problem (the nature of the psychic) is irresolvable without the question of the psychic in nature and the question of their interrelation, the place, its forms and manifestations in society, in life, in one word in reality in general. Not a few psychologists believe that the specific and real subject of psychological knowledge and research can be only human consciousness and not even whole consciousness, but rather self-consciousness. Man's ability to observe his mental states is not a fiction, man is capable of focusing on his thoughts, he can, by verbal signals, give self-report of experiences, aspirations, and so on. Illusion begins where the ability at hand is considered as the determining beginning of the soul life and as the sole source of information about it. On this illusion, introspectionism is constructed - a teaching according to which the reality of mental phenomena is determined by their immediate giving to the subject's mind: with unmistakable credibility, I distinguish my feelings, feelings and thoughts; for nothing else, I do not have such a clear and distinct knowledge as for the psychic products that are invisible to other people, created by my own soul.
The firm conviction, however, is that psychic is the immediate experience. Psychic opposes physical, material, because it attaches to certain properties, such as the immediate giving of consciousness, the presence of the object, immediacy, impenetrability, inaccessibility for external observation, arbitrariness, etc. In any case, mental reality should not be sought in consciousness, nor in the whole of the psyche, nor even in the psyche. The nature of the mental is in itself something so rich and heterogeneous that we have been able to point out not a few categories reflecting individual countries or characteristic details of the psychic reality. Psyche is a property of highly organized matter, it reflects objective reality in a particular subjective way, but it is imminent - breaking it through the past experience of the reflecting subject. The highest form of psychic reflection inherent in man is consciousness. It exists in two basic forms - individual / personal / and social / group, collective /. From a psychological point of view, consciousness can be defined as: the highest manifestation of the psyche inherent only in man, in which the reflection of objective reality is mediated by the past experience of the personality, and through him and by the collective experience of society and of all mankind , thanks to which it achieves maximum activity, abstraction, purposefulness, adequacy, depth and comprehensiveness of mental reflection. In turn, consciousness, like its generic concept (psyche), also has its own internal structure or substructure, its highest manifestation is self-consciousness. In turn, it is no longer known to all people or to all societies.