FARM TO RAISE PIGS, THEIR IMPORTANCE AND BENEFITS
Hello friends of the farm in the course of this article I will be able to show you what a Pig Farm is based on, what are its importance and benefits and the great utility for all those dedicated to this production
The Pig Farms are excellent alternatives to consider if we are producers of this type of animal since through its use we can organize, plan and also make these pigs are more comfortable with the environment in which they are, that is, although they are animals, we should not give them a miserable life or well-being because this could generate some future problems.
Pork Farms are those livestock units specifically offered for the breeding or intensive training of pigs for commercial purposes, to achieve some productivity benefit. Also, it can be seen that generally these could reach a minimum length of about 50 square meters in the area of pens.
RACES OF MOST HIGHLIGHTED PIGS.
Originated in England, they have a peculiar characteristic since they have good meat quality and adapt to tropical regions. In Spain, there are currently few copies of these breeds of pigs, since they have misconduct in reproduction and although the parameters of quality are good, do not reach those of other breeds goats. The breed of pigs Hampshire was officially recognized as race included in Spain in 1988.
The Hampshire breed comprises medium-sized animals, conformation and proper bones, medium-sized heads and upright ears slightly inclined upwards and outwards. The neck of the pig is short and well inserted in the head and trunk. The double chin is small.
The porcine trunk between parallels is of medium length, the back is deep and muscled, its chest is large and deep, the back wide and arched. Its little arched ribs, the high insertion tail and wide and very deep hams.
In the pig is characteristic of the race the color black with a white stripe that completely surrounds the body at the height of the cross, including both front members. It is a breed used for the improvement of the importance of the offspring of their crosses, since it gives channels with great muscular development, little fat and very few cases of PSE (soft, pale and exudative meats).
Its use is defined mainly by its low sensitivity to stress, its ease of adaptation and the quality of its meat. For these reasons they are used as porcine male finishers of meat in crosses, simple or three-way.
The meats of the pigs of this breed show low pH, which hinders the obstruction of water and that produces strong losses in cooking. All this seems to be due to the gene called RN.
It is a pig breed that originates in the United States, where it has popularity, at the beginning of the 19th century, from pigs of racial varieties of the so-called Iberian trunk. It is present in many of the hams and sausages that are currently marketed, they are also imported as high quality products with designation of origin such as ham from Teruel, Huelva or Guijuelo, among others.
Currently, it is used as a determining race in the industrial cross-links of white pig, bringing an increase in infiltrated fat that makes these pieces like ham and shoulder improve the proportion between muscle and fat.
Its color is red, with variations of hue. The average weight of male pigs is 350 kg and that of females of 300 kg.
It is also known as the great English white pig, is a breed of pig native to the northeast of England (County of Yorkshire). It is a uniformly white pig, its ears are rigid and its legs are long, it is very rough and adapts very well to outdoor breeding, although it also adapts well to life in captivity.
The large white has great qualities in its reproduction, which is coupled with an advanced development and channels of satisfactory quality. Due to this versatility, it is used in crosses to obtain females of maternal qualities, to obtain boars with very good skills in obtaining meat. The breeders focused their work resulting in the creation of two varieties. All these skills make it possible for this breed of pigs to become the most widespread in the world.
They are white and occasionally show spots on the skin.
These pigs have a total of 5,429 breeders, in the Large White breed, their high fertility and good maternal characteristics, with excellent bait performance and good meat quality.
It is one of the Danish Pig Breeds, known by the name of Landrace, this already existed towards the end of the 17th century; but, by the way, its characteristics were outside of being the most mentioned in the production of pigs, as it has become later.
The swine exploitation in Denmark continued to be rudimentary, until the middle of the last century, from which an improvement began, which became visible between the years 1860 and 1877.
These pigs are a very versatile breed, since it is used as a pure breed, also maternal or paternal. Their productive classifications are very similar to the Yorkshire, although they have a greater yield of the channel and also a greater length of the same one. It is recognized as lean.
It is of very good musculature, highlighted by the high quality of its channel, high percentage of ham and particularly the production of bacon. On the other hand it has an optimal response under adverse conditions, both production and climate.
IMPORTANT ASPECTS IN THE PRODUCTION OF A FARM FOR PIGS
Number of births.
Kilos of weaned pigs per female.
Kilo of meat per mother every year.
Food Consumption in the different areas of the farm.
Daily weight gain.
Food processing in different areas of the farm.
Cost of Production in the different areas.
NUTRITIONAL FOOD FOR PIGS
THE OTHER GROUP IS THE ONE THAT CONTRIBUTES FATS
The last group is made up, either by their contribution of fats or carbohydrates, agroindustrial waste, obtained in the agroindustry, such as oilseed cakes, maize nepe, bran and wheat afrechillo, palm kernel obtained from African palm, rice polish (Just to mention a few).
Are those that provide true proteins formed by the union of amino acids, either using vegetable sources such as soy or again some agroindustrial waste such as oilseed cakes, or some raw materials of animal origin, such as freeze dried feather meal or the fishmeal.
MINERALS AND VITAMINS.
Supplied through some particular sources such as calcium carbonate or desfluorinated phosphoric rock or simply through commercial premixes that are offered on the market as feed for fattening pigs.
HOW TO BUILD A FARM FOR PIGS
Pig sheds should be designed and constructed politely for the good health and welfare of the pigs so that maximum benefit and savings in labor costs can be obtained.
Also, keep in mind that a good house can not improve the state of health of pigs, but a "poor" house will undoubtedly increase the risk of diseases and as a result will generate additional costs. In addition, if the environment is uncomfortable, the pig will undergo stress, which similarly makes them vulnerable to infection.
BEFORE THE CONSTRUCTION OF A PIG FARM, WE HAVE TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT.
Here we must take into account the availability and accessibility of food, water and electricity.
Zoning and Permissions
We must visualize all the laws to which the place or area where we want to build the farms or the hatchery is subject.
Always evaluate the costs of food, electricity and water.
Distance to Other Production Companies
The correct distance from other farms and neighbors is approximately 1 kilometer.
Drinkers or pacifiers?
Automatic drinkers or dummies are much better, since they reduce water drains and waste.
The gestation facilities consist basically of rectangular sheds with two lines or rows of cages to house individually each sow, this in order to have a precise control of the female from the moment of insemination until it is sent to the maternity area.
The cages are about 65 centimeters wide by 220 centimeters long and with rear and front passages. The gestation sheds should be very well ventilated, the floors with a minimum level of 3% to avoid puddling and high humidity.
Facilities for Pigs
The infrastructure where the boars are located should be as close as possible to the room or collection room and this in turn near the laboratory for the process of weekly doses.
The pigs must be housed in individual pens with a minimum space of 6 square meters. The segmentations of the corrals are high minimum 150 centimeters to avoid that the animals jump the walls or divisions and pass to the neighboring corral, this induces fights that in some occasions end in the death of one or the two stallions.
Another reason to keep in mind so that the divisions are high is to prevent the pigs from climbing the wall or division and masturbating. The porcine corral floor should be well finished without turgencias or irregularities that excite lesions in the legs, the doors preferably of metal, fortified and with insurance to avoid that accidentally they will have.
MAIN TYPES OF FARMS FOR PIGS.
The Pig Farms have different approaches and without a doubt one of them is the commercialization that is why if we want to relate to this topic, it is necessary to know the different types of swine farms.
Production Farm Standing Breeding
This type of farm is dedicated specifically to the production and development of pigs, and then be able to sell the animals as bellies and stallions.
Piglet Production Farm
The piglets in these farms are stored during lactation and when they reach a weight of approximately 20 kg, they are sold to other producers who are responsible for fattening them, until they are transported to the slaughterhouse.
Full Cycle Farm
They have their own bellies and stallions; the piglets are born on the farm and there they are trained and fattened until their transfer to the trail.
Here they get the piglets separated and they are dedicated to fattening them until they reach the right weight and then they are sent to the trail.
TYPES OF DISEASES IN THE PIGS:
Bacterial Diseases in Pigs.
App: is a disease that affects breathing in pigs. Many times they suffer sudden death from nosebleeds, caused by high production of toxins.
Actinobacillosis: is produced by a systemic bacterium, which originates in high health sites and causes pigs arthritis, pneumonia and even skin discoloration in pigs of all ages.
Anthrax: Although it is a strange disease in pigs, they are exempt from suffering it. Pharyngeal, intestinal or systemic anthrax may occur. When pigs suffer from it, they usually have sudden death and you should eliminate any remaining contaminants as soon as possible.
Arthritis due to Microplasma: it causes as its name indicates arthritis in pigs and it is a bacterium that is always present in the farms.
Bordetelosis: this bacterium can cause rhinitis or pneumonia, is a disease that is not complicated and has no clinical or economic consequences.
Botulism: although pigs are very resistant to this toxin, Clostridium Botulinum causes progressive flaccid paralysis.
VIRAL DISEASES IN THE PIGS.
Swine Circovirosis: is a disease of detritus, is slow and progressive with high mortality rate, has a high economic impact for the owners of the pigs that suffer. With high mortality levels, it can also present as a dermatitis syndrome.
Porcine cytomegalovirus: is a very common infection in pigs, is characterized by rhinitis and presence of sneezing.
Respiratory Coronavirus Porcine: it is not a disease that should worry you, its main characteristic is that it produces antibodies that protect against viral gastroenteritis.
Delta Coronavirus: it is very similar to epidemic and low impact diarrhea.
Swine Epidemic Diarrhea: the most susceptible to suffer from this disease are piglets under 2 weeks, they suffer diarrhea and vomiting that can cause death.
Bovine Virus Diarrhea: caused by the same swine fever virus, it is characteristic in bovine and ovine animals, but when it occurs in pigs it causes productive problems in pigs.
Japanese B encephalitis: this disease is transmitted by mosquitoes and affects the reproduction of pigs.
Encephalomyocarditis: this type of disease in pigs causes reproductive problems and myocarditis with high levels of mortality.
Aujeszky's disease: is a type of disease that remains latent in pigs and causes respiratory, reproductive and nervous system problems.
Teschen disease: it is not a disease that is clinically dangerous, but sometimes it can cause problems in the nervous system in pigs.
Diseases in Parasitic Pigs.
Ascariasis: this type of intestinal parasites causes economic losses on a large scale worldwide.
Coccidiosis: disease caused by intracellular protozoan parasites and especially causes diarrhea in piglets.
Cryptosporidosis: this type of parasites also causes diarrhea in pigs.
Hyostrongylosis: This parasitic disease is caused by a red worm in the stomach that can cause stomach gastritis.
Lice Infestation: The parasitic disease caused by Haematopinus Suis can cause anemia and is the main form of transmission of swinepox.
Scabies: disease that manifests mainly in the skin, caused by the mite. This disease is characterized by swelling that often causes growth problems.
Trichurosis: parasite in the large intestine that causes diarrhea in pigs during their growth stage.
DISEASES FROM NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES.
Iron Deficiency Anemia: Anemia occurs for several causes, mainly in piglets causing them to look pale and growth problems.
Biotin Deficiency: can be manifested with problems in the hair and nails.
Mora Heart Disease: is a deficiency caused by lack of vitamin E or selent and usually causes sudden death in piglets that have been weaned recently.
Vitamin D Deficiency: Vitamin D deficiency, as well as, lack of calcium or phosphorus can cause osteoporosis and / or rickets. This produces weakness in the bones which makes the pigs prone to fractures.
DISEASES BY TOXICOSIS.
Aflatoxicosis: are mycotoxins that occur during periods of drought and it is important to pay due attention because it is one of the main causes of cancer in pigs.
Ergotism: these toxins are present in the ergot of rye and in low amounts can reduce growth in pigs. When there are considerable amounts of this toxin can produce gangrene in the extremities, as well as, necrosis in ears and tail.
Fumonisin poisoning: very dangerous poisoning that can cause pulmonary edema and death in many cases.
Salt Poisoning: this poisoning is very common. It is related by the lack of water and can affect the nervous system in pigs.
In conclusion, to raise a large group of pigs you must consider many infallible factors because if you do not set in motion the creation of the Pig Farms the development, growth and healthiness of the pigs will not be the most appropriate for the business. It must also be taken into account in relation to the ventilation and direction of the house that the front of it should be located to the east and the rear should be facing west. This would suppress that the animals have excessive exposure to the orientation of sunlight. In turn, this would strengthen the equal distribution of sunlight throughout the day.
Thank you for taking a few minutes to read my article.