THE MAIN DISEASES THAT MAMMALS AND BIRDS SUFFER IN THE FARMS

in #farmslast year


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Hello friend of the farms today I am going to talk about the living conditions of non-human animals on farms which make them very susceptible to various diseases the crowded conditions facilitate the spread of these diseases to the point of becoming epidemics massive
In addition, animals commonly suffer from a wide variety of debilitating conditions, as explained in the section on diseases in nature. In nature, this makes them more susceptible to being killed by other animals.
These diseases have not only caused great harm to infected animals, but they have also unleashed mass killings of huge quantities of animals so that humans avoid economic losses due to their spread.


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AVIARY FLU
Domestic birds (chickens, turkeys, etc.) can be infected with avian influenza A virus by direct contact with infected waterfowl or other poultry, or by direct contact with surfaces that have been contaminated with the viruses.
It is possible that the infection of poultry with LPAI virus does not cause disease, or cause a mild illness, and that causes only mild symptoms (such as ruffled feathers and decreased egg production). It is also possible that it will not be detected. The infection of poultry with HPAI virus can cause a serious disease with high mortality. Both HPAI and LPAI viruses can spread rapidly among poultry. Infection with HPAI viruses (such as HPAI H5 or HPAI H7 virus) in poultry can cause a disease that affects multiple internal organs with a mortality rate of up to 90 to 90%, often within 48 hours. Some ducks may be infected without showing signs of disease.
Bird flu, also called bird flu or avian flu, is a highly infectious disease caused by an influenza virus. It is transmitted between birds and, occasionally, to other animals, including humans.


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Infected birds can spread avian influenza A viruses through saliva, nasal secretions and feces. Susceptible birds become infected when they come into contact with the virus of infected birds. They can also be contagious by coming into contact with surfaces contaminated with viruses from infected birds.
Avian influenza A viruses are classified in the following two categories:

Avian Influenza A Virus with Low Pathogenic Incidence (LPAI) Infection of poultry with LPAI virus may not cause any disease or mild illness (such as unhealthy feathers and reduced egg production) and may not be detected.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) virus. The infection of poultry with HPAI virus can cause a serious disease with high mortality.

The categories refer to the molecular characteristics of a virus and its capacity to cause diseases and deaths among chickens.

Both HPAI and LPAI viruses can spread rapidly among poultry. However, some ducks may be infected without showing signs of disease. It produces high levels of mortality among birds, which, after an incubation process of a couple of days, can die in a matter of three or five days. In humans, the symptoms can be confused with those of a normal flu, although most severe cases can cause respiratory problems and pneumonia.


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THE AVIAN INFLUENZA OUTBREAKS ARE IMPORTANT IN DOMESTIC BIRDS FOR VARIOUS REASONS:

The potential of low pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses to evolve in viruses with a high pathogenic incidence

The possibility of rapid spread and severe disease and death of birds during outbreaks of avian influenza with high pathogenic incidence

The economic impact and commercial restrictions caused by an outbreak of avian influenza with a high pathogenic incidence

The possibility that avian influenza viruses can be transmitted to humans

When outbreaks of H5 or H7 avian influenza occur in poultry, depopulation (or killing, also called "eradication") of the infected groups is usually carried out. In addition, the surveillance of nearby groups or linked to infected groups, the quarantine of exposed groups and subsequent eradication if the disease is detected, are the preferred control and eradication measures

The most common methods of killing animals vary greatly depending on the country and the number of animals to be killed. All these animals, whether they are really sick, are suspected of being sick, or susceptible to disease, are considered hazardous waste. Therefore, it is considered necessary to kill them and dispose of them as soon as possible. Animals can be gassed, electrocuted, beaten and beaten, burned alive (usually by throwing them into large fires), buried alive (in plastic bags or under a layer of foam from fire fighters), or ground live in mincers, which convert the wood in chips (to which they are thrown alive and fully conscious).


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PORCINE INFLUENZA (SWINE FLU)
It is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by the influenza A virus that regularly causes outbreaks of influenza in pigs. Swine influenza viruses can cause high levels of disease in pig herds but cause few deaths in pigs. These viruses can circulate among pigs throughout the year, but most outbreaks occur during the late fall and winter months, similar to outbreaks of seasonal influenza in humans. The main swine flu viruses that have circulated among US pigs UU In recent years, it is the triple-truncated H1N1 swine flu virus (tr), the trH3N2 virus and the trH1N2 virus. With the exception of the 2009 H1N1 virus, influenza viruses circulating in pigs are very different from influenza viruses that circulate usually among people.


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THE ENZOOTIC ATAXIA
Rolling disease associated with nervous disorders and nutritional causes. Congenital form: the lambs are born or dead or weak.
Late form: lambs up to 3 months of unstable age lacks control of the later train. Etiology: lack of copper of the Mother. There may be copper but interference from other metals (diet caused by excess sulfates).
Distribution: determined by the characteristics of the soil of the plants.
Diagnosis: Symptoms, brain cavities, cupremia, seric, liver biopsy, CNS histopalogy.
Treatment: Irreversible disease. Prevention by supplement of mother with leaves of copper.


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COTO OR BOCIO DISEASE
Also known as the swollen disease. It causes hair loss in young animals and is associated with growth retardation.
Etiology: nutritional deficiency of iodine, which can be linked with the action of goitrogenic substances, found in some plants (Trifolium repens, Panicum coloratum and Paspalum, Dilatatum and in the seeds of soybeans and cotton).
Distribution: depends on the nutritional management and the pasture but also associated with the mineral composition of the systems.
Diagnosis: Usually because of the symptoms.
Treatment: the supply of iodized salt or iodophosphorus injections; The depressant effects of goitrogenic substance can be corrected by increasing the amounts of iodine 4 times the requirements.


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BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a degenerative disease of the bovine nervous system that is caused by the presence of infectious proteins (prions). It mostly affects cows, but can also be transmitted to humans. The incubation period of this disease is rather long (around 4-5 years on average, but possibly much longer). This disease produces the progressive degeneration of the nervous system, and those affected show, among other symptoms, a poor coordination of their movements. Sooner or later, the individuals affected by it die.


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In the beginning, several possible causes of this disease were analyzed. The most accepted by the scientific community is that it was produced by the consumption of food prepared by powdered meat and bones of animals killed in various circumstances, including some who had been suffering from degenerative nervous diseases (for example, sheep with templadera).
The eradication of the disease requires the elimination of animal proteins from the food given to the herbivores. Another measure approved was that any animal infected or suspected of infection should be killed, and their body incinerated immediately.
As a precautionary measure, all the animals of many farms were killed, even if there was only one sick animal or there was a mere suspicion that one of them was suffering from the disease.


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LOCAL COWS DISEASE
It is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system of cattle, which is characterized by the appearance of nervous symptoms in adult animals that progressively ends with the death of the animal.
The disease is caused by a protein that has modified its three-dimensional structure (in Biochemistry, they are called secondary and tertiary structures of proteins), due to a process called conformational change, which turns them into a pathological agent. These infectious proteins are called prions. The incubation period of the disease is 4 or 5 years. This protein is Prp, which in its normal variant is c but when it comes into contact with the protein in the non-native conformation it becomes Prp (Sc) and in chain. This, when coming into contact with the normal protein (c) of the organism induces a conformational change and causes the passage to the Sc. It is a physiological protein and has not been able to be eliminated from the organism.
The symptoms that are observed are motivated by the accumulation of the prion in the neuronal cells causing cell death. A microscopic analysis reveals lesions such as vacuoles that give the nervous tissue a sponge appearance.
The route of transmission of this disease known to date is the ingestion of food contaminated with the prion, the administration of drugs of bovine origin and from sick animals (typically growth hormone) and possibly from mother to child. The only method available to detect infection in the terminal phase is parenteral inoculation of brain tissue in mice. However, this technique is not usable in practice since the incubation periods are about 300 days.


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APHTOSE FEVER
Foot-and-mouth disease is a very contagious disease caused by a virus that affects pigs, cows, sheep and goats. It does not usually affect human beings, except in some extraordinary cases where those affected have been in very direct contact with the virus.
It causes high fever during the first two or three days, after which very painful blisters appear on the mucous membranes of the mouth and on the legs of the animals. Those who suffer suffer a loss of appetite that can, consequently, cause them to lose weight and produce less milk. In most cases, this disease is not lethal and there are vaccines to protect against it.


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In recent years, several outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease have emerged, killing millions of animals. The majority of deaths have occurred not due to the mortality of the disease, but rather due to the precautionary measures implanted in different countries, which have included the death of healthy animals. The reason for many of these deaths was not to prevent other animals from dying from the disease, but to stop the reduced productivity of animals that could become infected.

TIPS:
In situations where signs and symptoms similar to those that occur in the aforementioned diseases are observed, a Veterinarian should be consulted immediately to observe the case and make a corresponding diagnosis.
People who work with poultry with possible cases of infections with highly pathogenic type A avian influenza virus or confirmed cases should follow the recommendations for worker protection and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE).
Non-human animals raised for food are considered merchandise, and when these goods cease to be beneficial to those who exploit them, they are exterminated without regard to their welfare.

SOURCE:
https://espanol.cdc.gov/enes/flu/avianflu/avian-in-birds.htm
https://espanol.cdc.gov/enes/flu/swineflu/influenza-in-swine.htm
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encefalopat%C3%ADa_espongiforme_bovina

Thanks for reading my article.

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Thanks for educating us on this area we have indeed learnt from this post and we are sure that by now we would be well enable to prescribe treatment from the above stated disease.

Resteem

SteemChurch Farm (@farms)