Hello friend of the farm in these occasions we are going to speak with the objective of knowing why our horticulturals are rotting and so it will be to identify what are the causes of this rot and know how we should act.
There are different causes that can cause a rot. It can be caused by fungi, bacteria or lack of some type of nutrient.
WITH THE FOLLOWING SCHEME WE WILL SPECIFY THE MOST COMMON CAUSES:
Soft rot of the fruits
LACK OF NUTRIENTS
Apical rot: Calcium deficiency
SOFT BEVERAGE OF FRUIT
On this occasion, horticultural crops rot due to an illness caused by the bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum and affect a large number of species. The infection occurs when the bacteria penetrates through wounds or natural openings of the plant.
THE MAIN SYMPTOMS ARE:
In the fruit appear watery and soft depressions.
The epidermis (outer part of the fruit) wrinkles.
Stems sometimes appear dark spots.
They can give off bad odors.
METHODS OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL:
Avoid sprinkler irrigation, as they favor dispersion.
Disinfect implements and tools.
Encourage aeration using ample planting frames.
Perform crop rotation.
Anthracnose is a disease caused by a fungus of the genus Colletotrichum sp. The normal thing is that it takes place in summer and the crops of the orchard most affected are the tomato, the beans, the peppers and the strawberries.
AMONG THE MOST COMMON SYMPTOMS HIGHLIGHT:
Circular spots watery and sunk in ripe fruits.
They darken and become deeper as the fungus spreads.
Plant in well drained soils to prevent water from accumulating.
Perform crop rotation every 3 or 4 years.
Clean weed crops.
Application of red thyme.
BOTRYTIS OR GRAY RUBBER
Scientific name: Botrytis cinerea.
If your horticultural rot and you see a whitish color. There is no doubt, it is the fungus Botrytis sp.
The Botrytis fungus produces brown lesions and a gray mold appears on leaves, buds, flowers and fruits.
Strawberry, cucumber, eggplant, lettuce, etc.
It produces a wet rot and a velvety dark gray mycelium on the area.
It can also cause the death of young and tender plants by rotting the base of the stems.
The optimum conditions for its development are mild temperatures and high humidity.
It infects by wounds that cause insects, hail, chafing .For this reason, after a hail, it is recommended to apply a fungicide treatment the following day to prevent Botrytis infection due to the wounds caused by the hail.
The removal of crop residues and plants affected by the disease is essential.
Special care in pruning and when thinning leaves. The application of a fungal paste to wounds is a recommended measure.
Try not to keep the plants moist during the night, especially if they are inside greenhouses. Therefore, the risks do them in the early hours of the morning.
Vent the forced tunnels or greenhouses to prevent excess moisture.
Cut the diseased parts and clean the pruning tools.
The treatments must be preventive and be carried out every 10-12 days with recommended systemic fungicides.
If the attack is not so serious as to throw the specimen, it is treated with systemic fungicides with the ability to reach the roots and neck, such as Fosetil-Al, although the effectiveness is usually irregular.
Iprodione is a specific product against Botrytis.
Procymidone and Vinclozolin are also specific, although they are older and resistance is appearing.
Benzimidazoles are not specific and are less effective.
Another fungus that can cause decay in your plants is the Mildew. It affects a wide group of plants, highlighting the vine and nightshades (tomato, eggplant, pepper or potato). Other crops damaged by this fungus are strawberries, cucumber, melon, beet, spinach or Swiss chard.
Vascular disease caused by:
Phytophthora cactorum: mainly attacks young green fruits in which dark spots appear and do not reach the definitive size.
Phytophthora fragariae. Attacks young leaves of the heart of the plant that are necrotic. At the same time, the roots and area of the neck acquire a reddish hue, which is why it is also known as red rot. The next phase is wilting and rotting of the attacked areas.
This fungus takes advantage of the wounds of the plants or the stomata of the leaves to enter. You can infect them through irrigation water. It requires medium temperature (approximately 20ºC) and high humidity (that's why it usually appears after the rains)
MOST COMMON SYMPTOMS:
Stains on the fruits with greasy appearance of different tones, which then turn brown and wither.
The stems also blacken.
Soil disinfection is the most effective measure for your struggle.
Treatments with Fosetil-al or Metalaxyl can slow the development of the disease.
Foot disease or black rot of the roots (Fusarium oxysporium, Rhizoctonia solani, Phythium sp.). Strawberry
Attacks the roots and neck, causing withering and death.
The struggle is to use healthy cuttings and soil disinfection.
Do not water from above. Good ventilation Remove weeds
ROOT RIGHTS OF JEWISH
It affects Jewish.
Rot in the neck and roots. The aerial part loses vigor and gives less fruit. The leaves below show chlorosis and decay.
This fungus is favored by compact soils, excess nitrogen fertilizer and excess soil moisture.
Avoid excess compaction in the soil and excess moisture.
That fertilizer with nitrogen is not excessive.
Solarization is possible.
Chemical treatments when observing the first symptoms with Captan + Thiabendazole, Methyl-thiophanate or Thiabendazole.
IF THE HORTICULTURAL PEOPLE BECOME AT THE POINT.
This type of rot mainly affects tomatoes and peppers. It is due to a lack of calcium and / or water stress in the plant, which causes the death of apical fruit cells and the consequent loss of color. It mainly manifests itself in summer.
Sunken, dark and black spots appear at the lower end of the fruit.
The rest of the fruit matures normally.
METHODS OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL:
Application of calcium via foliar or through irrigation.
The affected fruits must be removed.
TOMATO ROOTS ROT
General withering and yellowing of leaves, which begins at the base extending towards the apex. Roots are observed in the roots. In a longitudinal section of the base of the stem, vascular necrosis is observed.
This disease is favored by low temperatures (18-20ºC). If the weather conditions are favorable, it may recover.
Remove remains of the previous crop if it is repeated.
There are varieties resistant to this fungus.
During the cultivation there is no effective chemical treatment.
In seedlings it causes rottenness of roots and death. In plants wilt is observed. The vascular bundles of the stem are brown.
Two symptoms: yellowing of leaves and withering without yellowing.
It begins with the fall of petioles from the upper leaves. The lower leaves turn yellow towards the apex and end up dying. Darkening of glasses.
The fungus remains in the soil for years and penetrates roots to the vascular system.
Use resistant varieties.
The rotation of crops decreases the pathogen little by little.
Use certified seeds and healthy seedlings.
Eliminate diseased plants and crop residues.
Solarization decreases much Fusarium oxysporum, although not all.
Chemical treatments are ineffective.
Thanks for reading my article.