LET'S TALK ABOUT OAT THEIR VARIETIES BENEFITS FOR OUR HEALTH YOUR PESTS AND DISEASES
Hello friends of the farm today I am going to talk about the cultivation of oats which is a cereal originating in the European region. In its beginnings it grew in its natural state and even came to be considered a weed within the wheat and barley crops. Currently the cultivation of oats has spread throughout the world. It is produced with two main purposes, the first is the grain that serves to prepare delicious dishes and the second its green mass as fodder to feed the animals.
- Forecast: It is a variety obtained in Aula Dei, in Zaragoza, by selection of an Argentine variety. It is quite precocious and with good resistance to drought. It has good productivity. The grain is red.
- Snow White: It is a variety of white winter oats, obtained at the INIA of France. It is very classic in Europe. It is quite precocious. It is sensitive to cold, resistant to lodging and with fairly regular and high production. It is sensitive to rust and resistant to carbon. White grain of high specific weight.
- Condor: Spring oats that are very good in Castilla-León. Obtained in Holland. Suitable for spring plantings on fertile land. Resistant to lodging, although sensitive to cold and very sensitive to rust. White grain.
- Moyencourt: Spring oats, black grain, obtained in France. It is quite precocious. It is not very resistant to cold and sensitive to rust. It is also sensitive to shelling. Stalk of medium length. Its grain is of high specific weight.
THE CULTIVATION OF OATS FOR GRAIN
Oats is a cold climate plant, very sensitive to high temperatures especially in the stage of flowering and grain formation. It needs abundant moisture for its proper development because it has high levels of perspiration. However, as far as the soil is concerned, it is not very demanding since, due to its abundant and deep roots, it can extract more nutrients from it.
The oats are sown in furrows separated by a distance of 20 cm between them. This planting framework is recommended to keep the crop free of weeds more easily. It usually takes around 100 to 150 kg of seed per each achieved a density of 250 plants per square meter.
It is important that the flowering occurs in September to obtain high yields in grain and with good quality. It is convenient that during the critical period of the crop in which the quantity of product is defined, the temperatures are medium and the solar radiation is high. Avoiding that in the period of filling the grain does not coincide with periods of low rainfall.
When the grain is ripe and dry, the harvest is carried out with a cereal thresher. Oat grains are usually packaged in the form of flakes. The final destination of this production is human consumption and as inputs for the industry.
THE CULTIVATION OF THE FEED OAT
The forage oats grain is used mainly in cattle feed. It is also used as a fodder plant for grazing. It is used alone or in combination with other foods. Oat straw is considered an excellent food for livestock. Horses, mules, cows and sheep are the types of livestock most commonly used as oats.
In terms of climatic and soil requirements, they are very similar to those of the oat crop for grains. It prefers the cold climates and the humid zones for its better development. The forage oats are harvested when they are mature. To do this, a mechanical mower or sickle is used in case of cutting manually. It is very important to make the cut before the plant is completely dried so that it does not lose its nutrients.
The nutritional value of the oat grain is higher than that of other cereals, since oats are richer in essential amino acids, especially in lysine. The digestible protein content of the oat grain is higher than in corn and also has a greater richness in fat than barley and wheat. The composition of the oat grain is shown in the following table:
Oat grain composition in 100 g of substance
Fatty matter 4.8
Mineral substances 3.1
THE BENEFITS OF OATME FOR OUR HEALTH.
Combat obesity: the carbohydrates contained in oat flakes are complex or slow absorption. Thanks to this the consumption of this type of oats keeps us satisfied for a good time. By preventing us from overeating, we also avoid that we increase more.
Useful for diabetes: for the same reason previous to its slow absorption, our body can better control sugar levels. Then we can say that oatmeal is an ally for diabetics.
An important source of energy: in its content we find a large amount of proteins and minerals. This makes oat flakes necessary for children and young people in growing ages. Besides that they can be of great help to combat situations such as fatigue and fatigue due to their energetic power.
Help in the functioning of the digestive system: oat flakes contain a type of insoluble fiber that accelerates intestinal transit and prevents constipation. As it passes through the intestine, this fiber captures the waste that is subsequently excreted, purifying and cleaning the digestive system.
Good for hair: the high content of vitamins and minerals that oat flakes have make them of vital importance for the care and improvement of hair. It is also very important to know that they prevent baldness.
PESTS THAT CAN BE POSITIONED IN THE CULTIVATION OF OATS.
-Tarsonemus apirifex, it is a mite, which during the spike, hardens the pod with its bites and prevents the exit of the panicle. After the weeks the rachis comes out completely twisted and the flowers are sterile. It is controlled with a good preparation of the land and an adequate fertilizer. In Canada it is one of the most important pests.
-Gorgojos (Tychius sp.), The oats suffer in the barn the attacks of weevils, although they are less intense than in the alfalfa.
DISEASES THAT CAN BE POSITIVED IN THE CULTIVATION OF THE OAT
-The dressed coal (Ustilago levis), of which we will say that it behaves in a similar way to wheat blight (T. caries). The dressed coal does not manifest to the outside, because the appearance of the plant is normal, but the interior of the grain is completely full of blackish dust. Control: disinfect the seeds with mercurial products.
-The bare coal (Ustilago avenae), destroys the entire panicle, leaving only the central axis. This disease usually does not matter.
- Orange rust (Puccina coronifera), is specific to oats. The uredospores are a bright orange color. The pustules are sometimes small and others reach almost the size of one centimeter. It can cause important damages. To combat it, Diclobutrazol 3% + Mancozeb 40% is used, presented as a concentrated suspension at a dose of 1-5 l / ha with a 21-day safety period. Triadimefon 25% can also be used, presented as an emulsifiable concentrate at a dose of 0.50-1 l / ha with a 15-day safety period.
-Oidio (Erysiphe graminis), the attacked plant looks similar to the wheat affected by the same disease. It has gray spots on the leaves, pods and stems, and also on the spikelets, in which afterwards there are small black spots. Control: use resistant varieties, do not sow too thick and reduce nitrogen fertilization.
Other diseases can also make their appearance in oat crops but are less common such as nematodes, black rust, black foot and others. For its control, products such as Diniconazole and Etirimol can be used.
I hope that my article has been of interest to you.