HOW TO CULTIVATE GARBANZO IN OUR GARDEN AND OBTAIN THEIR BENEFITS.
Hello friends of the farm is this opportunity I am going to talk about how to grow chickpeas in your garden at home. The chickpea (cicer arietinum) is a legume that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean, in the countries of Greece, Turkey and Syria. This legume is very nutritious because it is a good source of protein and contains many vitamins and minerals that are rare in vegetables. Here we will learn how to grow this energy source, its benefits and some recipes to prepare it at home.
The chickpea is an autumn-winter vegetable, the best time to grow it is from November to the beginning of December. The chickpea is a shrub that reaches up to 50cm in height. Its leaves come in pairs of dark green and its flowers white or purple. Each pod can have one or two chickpea seeds.
These legumes grow in full sun or with a little shade in warm places. Its cycle is approximately 100 days for the harvest. They adapt very well to pots with a minimum depth of 30cm.
BENEFITS OF THE GARBANZO
Chickpea has unsaturated fats, fiber and low cholesterol, contains Sodium, Manganese, Phosphorus, Iron, Zinc, Magnesium and Vitamin B6. Because of its high magnesium content, it helps neurons and relaxes blood vessels.
To grow chickpeas you must have siliceous-clayey or clayey-clay soils that do not contain plaster, because then you will obtain copies of poor quality. On the other hand, it prefers aerated soils, little saline and deep since its roots have great development.
As for the climate, it is a crop that resists droughts and can grow only with the humidity accumulated in the soil as a result of the rains. It has even been proven that the best results are obtained in harvests made in rainy years. From 10ºC the chickpea can germinate although the optimum temperature of germination oscillates between 25-35ºC.
The soil must have good drainage and be well nourished with compost. A good mix is half of black soil with half leaf soil. He likes neutral or slightly acid soils. For a good development, re-apply compost to the middle of the crop.
The sowing of the chickpea can be direct or by seedbed, it takes between 10-15 days to germinate. If done by seedling, be careful when transplanting so as not to hurt the roots, as we can damage the seedling and slow down its adaptation and growth. A good option is to use biodegradable pots.
The sowing depth of the chickpea is about 4-5cm, three times the size of the seed. For direct sowing in crop beds you can draw two zigzag rows in the center and place the seeds 15cm apart. Another way is by placing seeds 7cm away and after they germinate leave the seedlings more vigorous.
When the planting is done in the nursery, wait until the seedlings are approximately 7-10cm tall. With a small stick, make holes 7cm deep by 5-6cm wide and place some compost before placing the seedlings. The distance between plants is 10-15cm depending on the variety. When transplanting, do not hurt the roots of the seedling so that its growth is not affected. Water when you finish transplanting. If there is a possibility of frost, cover your plants with agribón to protect them.
Because it is a drought resistant plant, its need for water is scarce. The plant can grow in good conditions even with rainwater only. Even so, additional irrigation is recommended to improve the modulation and increase the yield and the number of pods.
As with other crops, we must be attentive to weeds, eliminating them whenever they appear.
CARE OF CULTIVATION OF THE GARBANZO
To achieve better results when growing chickpeas, you can consider the following data and considerations:
As the plants grow, they lean against each other. Guides can be placed if they need some support.
Water twice a week, depending on the temperature. Always keep the soil moist. If you water excessively, the pods may dry out or mold will appear.
Keep the space free of weeds, weeding manually so as not to hurt the roots. So the plants will not compete for space, water or nutrients.
Add compost or compost tea a month and a half after planting, for a better development of the plant. In any case, the chickpea, being a legume, can create its own fertilizer.
Chickpeas can be associated with potatoes, cucumbers, corn, celery, strawberries, squash, beets and broccoli. Avoid association with garlic and onions.
The planting density depends on the environmental conditions and the type of plant, although an average is sowing 33 plants / m2.
Remember that a delay in the sowing season can cause the reduction of growth and development of the plant. Flowering is also affected.
It is recommended not to re-grow chickpeas on the same plot of land until four years have passed.
It is recommended to cultivate in lands oriented to the midday or the west avoiding the places where the humidity accumulates.
PLAGUES AND DISEASES
Among the most important pests that affect the cultivation of chickpeas are:
FLY OF THE GARBANZO (Liriomyza cicerina):
It is an exclusive pest of chickpea. This is a pest in which small larvae form galleries in the leaves of the plant. Removing space for photosynthesis. To eliminate this plague, you must crushthe larvae on the leaves to prevent further development. It has a smaller impact on autumn and winter chickpeas.
HELIOTHIS (Heliothis armigera):
It is a larva that feeds on the leaves of the plant. For the control of this pest, we must observe on the underside of the leaves and stems. For your control, apply a mixture of water and biodegradable soap early in the morning. Some natural enemies of this plague are lacewing and praying mantis.
GORGOJO (Bruchus sp.):
It is important to control this pest because it lowers the quality of the seed. This pest feeds on the seeds both in the pods and in storage. To prevent this plague from ending with our seeds we can store the seeds in a jar and fill it with flour. This will prevent oxygen in the bottle and the weevils will drown.
The caterpillars defoliate the plants and it is a very common pest in Turkey.
MOSQUE MINERAS (gen.Liriomyza):
This plague is very common in Spain and causes damage to the plant.
There are two most frequent diseases:
RABIES OF GARBANZO (Ascochyta rabiei):
It is a disease caused by a fungus that produces round spots with dark borders on leaves and pods. The stains on the stems prevent the circulation of the sap and the plant dries.
This fungus causes a disease called fusariosis that alters the roots and causes brown spots on the neck of the plant. The fungus ends up obstructing the ascending of the sage by the vessels and destroying the roots. It is the most important disease in the cultivation of chickpea.
PULGONES (Acyrthosiphon pisum)
It is a pest that feeds on the sap of the plant and can cause diseases. If this problem is not controlled, we can lose our plant. For control, wash the leaves with water and biodegradable soap (remove excess leaves as it may affect them) or a solution containing neem. It is important to consider the natural predators of aphids such as ladybugs that are attracted by flowers and are housed in some plants in our garden.
HARVEST AND STORAGE
The observation is the best thermometer to know when is the precise moment for the collection. Harvest when the leaves turn yellow and the garbanzo beans are still green.
The technique is simple: you just have to cut the plants above ground level or root and then stack them and let them dry for a week before being threshed. Remember that before storage chickpeas should have a humidity of 8-15% and should be kept in a dry and ventilated place.
When they are green to prepare fresh or stewed. The best time is when the pods are still tender (3-6cm).
If you want to store the chickpea for grain, cut the pods when they dry and before they open. Another option is to cut the plant when the leaves wilt and its color is brown. Hang them in a covered and dry place, during the rainy season, until they finish drying, and then remove the chickpeas from the pod easily.
You can store the chickpea in the freezer, bags, cans or glass jars to avoid pests. A cool, dry place will help you to store them for longer.
HUMUS DE GARBANZO
½ kg chickpeas (Soak the previous night) or a jar of cooked chickpeas
3 tablespoons of tahini (pasta or mashed made of sesame seeds)
3 garlic cloves, crushed
1 teaspoon salt
Cook the chickpeas with salt for 1 hour. Drain the chickpeas (Separate a cup of cooking water). Blend the chickpeas with the cooking water to create a homogeneous puree.
Add the Tahini, the peeled and crushed garlic cloves, add the lemon juice and the tablespoon of salt. Mix 3-5 minutes until smooth.
Place in a serving dish, and create a hole in the center of the humus.
Add a small amount (1-2 tablespoons) of virgin olive oil. Garnish with parsley (optional). Serve immediately with fresh, hot or toasted pita bread.
Store in a closed container in the refrigerator.
1 cup chickpeas, pre-cooked and drained
Salt and pepper to taste
3 tablespoons olive oil
½ medium onion, finely chopped
2 medium-sized tomatoes, finely chopped
Croutons or pieces of toasted bread
Blend half of the chickpeas until a smooth paste is obtained. If necessary, add only a little water.
Heat 1 tablespoon of oil in a saucepan over medium heat.
Sauté the onion until it looks clear, then add the tomato and cook until it changes color.
Then add the ground chickpeas and 1 ½ liter of water.
Season with salt and let boil a couple of minutes.
Add the whole chickpeas and the rest of the olive oil. Boil another few minutes. If it is very thick, add more water.
Serve the hot cream accompanied with croutons.
I hope you liked my article.