HOW TO AVOID THE TUBON IN THE CULTURE OF AERIAL
Hello friends of the farm today I'm going to talk about the blight by Phomopsis, caused by the fungus Phomopsis vexans, is an important disease of eggplant that occurs basically on the fruit and sometimes on the leaves and stems.
The lesions on the fruits have a sunken appearance; They are discolored and soft, surrounded by a margin of black spore-producing bodies. Typically, the lesions begin by forming pale, sunken, oval-shaped areas on the surface of the fruit. These areas become larger and more sunken gradually.
Finally, the lesions affect areas so large that it is impossible to market the fruit. The bodies that produce fungal spores form concentric circles within the lesions of the fruit.
IF THE CONDITIONS ARE DRY, THE INFECTED FRUIT IS MARCHED AND MOMMYED.
The leaves and stems can also be affected. Older leaves are more susceptible to infection. In general, lesions on leaves and stems are circular, gray or brown and develop a clear center. The bodies that produce spores called pycnidia appear in the center of the oldest lesions, in the form of black grains embedded in the host tissue.
The affected leaves may turn yellow and detach prematurely. The infection in the foliage is less important than the infection in the fruit.
Seedlings infected with blight by phomopsis have dark brown lesions that turn gray in the center, just above the soil line. The time comes when these lesions surround the stem in the form of rings and kill the plants.
SURVIVAL AND DISSEMINATION
The phomopsis fungus is favored by hot and humid weather. The optimum temperature for the growth of the fungus is 29 ° C and grows well up to 32 ° C.
The disease survives in the intervals between crops, on the seeds and the stubble that remains in the soil. If the season in which it is not cultivated is very short, this will increase the chances of survival of the pathogen.
The disease occurs when the spores are released from the bodies that produce the fungal spores (pycnidia) and are dispersed by the splashes of rain, insects and contaminated equipment. The main form of dissemination is by rain splashes. Usually, dissemination by wind is considered minor. The spores germinate quickly when the stems and leaves are moist.
METHODS OF HANDLING
If possible, it is recommended to rotate crops of three years or more between each aubergine crop. The rapid destruction of waste after harvest will help reduce the initial inoculum.
Some varieties of eggplant have a good level of resistance during the stage in which the disease develops in the form of cancer in the seedlings, but they are highly susceptible to the infectious stages that affect the leaves, stems and fruits.
It is necessary to establish a program with a protective fungicide to maintain performance and quality.
There are several cupric fungicides labeled for this purpose. Some new fungicides have been registered for eggplant, but its effectiveness in combating fruit rot by phomopsis is unknown.
If the disease is identified in the field, a recommended fungicide should be applied. It is difficult to manage the disease with sprayed fungicides because the smooth skin of the fruit prevents the sprays from adhering well.
Fungicides are most effective when combined with integrated pest and disease control strategies.
I hope that my article has been useful to you.